Chapter 20 Study Guide

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13 Mar 2011
Chapter 20 The Later Romantics
-Brahms follows Classic masters to compose his work
-Wagner and Liszt develop new genres like music drama and symphonic poem respectively
-dichotomy between absolute and program music, tradition and innovation
-technology and scientific knowledge has influence people’s mind
-they looked forward and are optimistic about innovation and novelty
-despite the innovative attitude, old musical styles, like that of Bach and Mozart are conserved in
this period
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
-model piano style after virtuoso, adding stunning effect
-adapt Chopin’s lyricism of melodic line and rubato
-is stimulated by violinist, Paganini’s technical virtuosity
-push piano to its furthest limit
Piano Music
-un sospiro (A sigh)
-etude piece
-slow moving melody is played in rapid broken-chord figuration
-pedal makes this possible by sustaining harmonies when the two hands play leaps over each
other to play the floating pentatonic tune
-the piece makes it look like the pianist needs 3 hands
-left hand plays bottom staff, right hand play middle, and the top is played by whichever hand is
free at the time
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)
-apply principles of sonata form
-adhere to traditional genre of instrumental music
-Romantic sensibility include lyrical beauty and sincere expressivity
-wrote 4 symphonies
movement (finale) of Symphony No.4
-chaconne, a form that reflects Baroque music
-variation on basso ostinato and harmonic pattern
-rising bass figure is from final chorus of Bach’s Cantata 150
Postlude: The Beethoven Legacy in the Nineteenth Century
-recurring theme in other movement
-Berlioz developed idée fixe, a melody that represent heroine
-pastoral atmosphere, dialogue in piping shepherd in symphonie fantastique
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