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Chapter 10 Study Guide
x ,QWKHHDUO\¶V-¶VWKHUHZDVDVWURQJGLVWLQFWLRQEHWZHHQVH[DQGJHQGHU
x Sex: described by the biology of an individual; anatomy, hormones and physiology(92)
x *HQGHU³DQDFKLHYHGVWDWXV´FRQVWUXFWHGWKURXJKSV\FKRORJLFDOcultural and social
means(92)
x %\WKH¶VWKHWHUPVJHQGHUDQGVH[EHFDPHLQWHUFKDQJHDEOHLQWKHVHQVHWKDWJHQGHU
was thought to be fixed, unvarying and static- much like sex (92)
x ³'RLQJJHQGHKDVVRPHKRZEHFRPHVRFLDOO\JXLGHGDQGZKHQDQLQGLYLGXDO does
certain things, their actions are categorized into being expressions of masculine and
IHPLQLQHµQDWXUH
x 2XUVRFLHW\QRORQJHUYLHZV³JHQGHDVDQLQGLYLGXDOWKLQJEXWUDWKHUDVDQHPHUJLQJ
feature due to social interactions. As well, gender is what creates a division in society
Perspectives on sex and gender
x Gender is something that can be seen as being predicted from the reproductive functions
of men and women (93)
x ³PHQDUHPHQDQGZRPHQDUHZRPHQ´± a division perceived to be natural and leads to
psychological, behavioural, and social consequences (93) ± biological determinism
x Sex differences approach: sex-linked behaviours and traits of individuals are seen to
essential properties of individuals ± reduces gender to fixed set of psychological traits
x Role theory: VWXGLHVWKHVRFLDOFRQVWUXFWLRQRIJHQGHUFDWHJRULHVµVH[UROHV¶RUµJHQGHU
UROHV¶± analyzes how they are learned and enacted
o ³FRQFHSWXDOL]LQJJHQGHUDVDUROHPDNHVLWGLIILFXOWWRDVVHVVLWVLQIOXHQFHRQRWKHU
roles and reduces its explanatory usefulness in discussions of power and
LQHTXDOLW\´± many roles are already gender marked; which makes it difficult to
analyze gender through this theory
x Gender is the social doing of some sort, created and developed through interaction
Gender Display
x when humans interact with one another in their environment they assume that the other
will display natural signs which can categorically be placed under feminity or masculinity
(94)
x Our actions or expressions convey our regards for others, indicate our alignment in an
encounter and tentatively establish the terms of contact for that social situation (94) ± also
H[SUHVVRXUµHVVHQWLDOQDWXUH
x Gender displays (as defined by Goffman): ³,IJHQGHUEHGHILQHGDVWKHFXOWXUDOO\
established correlates of sex (whether in consequence of biology or learning), then gender
GLVSOD\UHIHUVWRFRQYHQWLRQDOL]HGSRUWUD\DOVRIWKHVHFRUUHODWHV´
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