Chapter 40.doc

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Women's and Gender Studies
Course
WSTA01H3
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Chapter 40: Genderbashing: Sexuality, Gender, and the Regulation of Public Space
Limits of Tolerance: Gender Norms and Gender Transgressions
- ‘gender’ refers to the roles and meanings assigned to men and women based on their presumed biological sex
- it is a social function, neither timeless nor historical
- ‘sexuality’ , in contrast, refers to the ways in which individuals organize their erotic and sexual lives
- this is generally categorized into three separate areas: heterosexuals – individuals who have sexual relations with members of the opposite sex; homosexuals –
those who have sexual relations with members of the same sex; and bisexuals – people who relate erotically to both men and women
- the fusion of gender and sexuality has distinct implications for the problematic of violence
- indeed, bashers do not characteristically inquire as to the sexual identity of their potential victims, but rather make this assumption on their own
- women and men who transgress acceptable limits of self-presentation, then, are among those most at risk for assault
- assaults against men judged to be ‘eliminate’ or women deemed ‘masculine’ reveal the ways in which gender and sexuality are intertwined
- gender is used as a cue to locate lesbians and gay men
- though the perceived transgression of gender norms motivates bashing, this affects men and women differently
Transsexual and Transgendered People and Violence
- despite the variety of gender identities available in transgender networks, and despite the prevalence of transgendered people in other cultures, most people in
Western societies assume that there are only two sexes and two genders
- for transsexual and/or transgendered people, this poses a significant problem: a person must choose the gender to which he/she belongs and behave accordingly
-because most people believe that there are only ‘men’ and ‘women’, transgendered people need to live as one or the other in order to avoid verbal and physical
harassment
- in transgendered communities, this is known as the need to pass
- passing is about presenting yourself as a ‘real’ woman or a ‘real’ man – that is, as an individual whose ‘original’ sex is never suspected
- passing means hiding the fact that you are transsexual and/or transgendered
Sex Work and Transsexual/Transgendered Public Space
- ‘transsexual and transgendered public space’ refers to urban areas known for their transsexuals and transvestites
Limits of Antiviolence Activism: Opposing Gender and Sexuality
much of the activist response to violence against sexual and gender minorities has centered on the gay village of a particular city
as most gay men are assaulted in areas demarcated as 'gay': this focus is useful
yet such a strategy forecloses an investigation of gender and ignores the different experiences of lesbians, bisexual women, and transgendered people with
respect to public space and violence
bashing occurs due to the perception of potential victims, and that compulsory sex/gender relations figure centrally in these acts of interpretation
in this light, educational materials that address the perpetrators of violence should focus on the interpretive processes these people use to locate queerbashing
victims
because gender is the primary mechanism through which this takes place, there is a desperate need for posters, pamphlets, and presentations that outline the
ways in which a binary gender system is upheld, as well as the power relations concealed within it
Conclusion
the definition of public space is intimately linked to culturally sanctioned gender identities
this has profound implications for people who live outside normative sex/gender relations: 'ordinary' public space as well as regions known as gay ghettoes are sits
where the gender potential of being verbally abused, and/or physically assaulted, is remarkably high

Document Summary

Chapter 40: genderbashing: sexuality, gender, and the regulation of public space. Limits of tolerance: gender norms and gender transgressions. Gender" refers to the roles and meanings assigned to men and women based on their presumed biological sex it is a social function, neither timeless nor historical. Transsexual and transgendered people and violence despite the variety of gender identities available in transgender networks, and despite the prevalence of transgendered people in other cultures, most people in. Transsexual and transgendered public space" refers to urban areas known for their transsexuals and transvestites.