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Integumentary System - Extreme stretching of the skin (occurs during pregnancy or sudden weight increases) can tear the dermis. Silvery white scars called stiae (stretch marks) indicate dermal tearing. - A blister is formed by the separation of the epidermal and dermal layers by a fluid filled pocket. - Often excessive sun exposure can cause eventual damages to skin, and damage the melanin barrier. It can cause clumping of elastin fibers leading to leathery skin, causing temporary immuno-suppression and lead to skin cancer. - The pinkish hue of fair skin reflects the color of oxygenated hemoglobin in the red blood cells circulating through the dermal capillaries. If the hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated, both the blood and the skin of light-skinned people appear blue (cyanosis). In dark-skinned individuals this condition does not appear because of the masking of hemoglobin. Can indicate problems with the respiratory system (circulatory system). -Redness, or erythema -Pallor, or blanchin -Jaundice or yellow cast -Bronzing -Black-and-blue marks, bruises - If a sebaceous (oil) gland becomes blocked by accumulated sebum (oily secretion) causing the appearance of a whitehead. If the material oxidizes it forms a blackhead. Whereas inflammation of the sebaceous glands causes acne. Seborrhea is known as “cradle cap” in infants, is caused by the overactivity of the sebaceous glands. - Excessive hairiness, or hirsutism, as well as other signs of masculinization, may result from an adrenal gland tumor produces large amounts of androgens. This occurs mainly in women. Conditions that increase the local dermal blood flow (inflammation) may enhance local hair growth. - Hair thinning can be induced by a number of factors that lengthen follicular resting periods and upset the normal balance between hair loss and replacement. Some factors are high fever, surgery, emotional trauma, and certain drugs (excessive vitamin A, some antidepressants, and chemotherapy drugs). - Organic solvents and heavy metals can be lethal to the body. Their absorption through skin into the blood can cause kidney shut down and brain damage. Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin Burns: - devastating threat to the body primarily because of their effects on the skin. Intense heat, electricity, radiation, electricity, and radiation can inflict it. - The volume of fluid lost can be estimated by computing the percentage of body surface burned using the rule of nines. It divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of total body area. - Burns are classified according to their severity (depth) first-, second-, third-degrees burns. - First-degree burns indicate just the epidermis is damaged (localized redness, welling, pain; sunburn). Second-degree burns are injury to the epidermis and upper dermis layer (often blistering occurs). These burns are often referred to as partial-thickness burns. 1 - Third-degree burns involve the entire thickness of the skin. Often called full-thickness burns. The burned area appears blanched (gray-white), cherry red, or blackened, and initially there is little or no edema. Skin Cancer: Basal Cell Carcinoma - Is the least malignant and most common skin cancer. - Cells of the stratum basale proliferate, invading the dermis and hypodermis. Often caused by sun- exposure. - They are slow growing and metastasis seldom occurs before it is noticed. Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Arises from the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum. - The lesion appears as a scaly reddened papule (small, rounded elevation) that arises most often around the scalp, ears, dorsum of the hands, and lower lip. - It tends to grow rapidly and metastasize to adjacent lymph nodes if not removed. - Removed by surgery or radiation therapy, chance of complete recovery is good. Malignant Melanoma - Cancer of the melanocytes. - Accounts for 5% of the skin cancers. - It can begin wherever there is pigment. Often appear as spontaneous pigmented moles. Often brown to black patch that metastasizes rapidly to surrounding lymph and blood vessels. The American Cancer Society employs the ABCD rule Asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented spot or mole do not match Border irr
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