- Extreme stretching of the skin (occurs during pregnancy or sudden weight increases) can tear the
dermis. Silvery white scars called stiae (stretch marks) indicate dermal tearing.
- A blister is formed by the separation of the epidermal and dermal layers by a fluid filled pocket.
- Often excessive sun exposure can cause eventual damages to skin, and damage the melanin barrier. It
can cause clumping of elastin fibers leading to leathery skin, causing temporary immuno-suppression
and lead to skin cancer.
- The pinkish hue of fair skin reflects the color of oxygenated hemoglobin in the red blood cells
circulating through the dermal capillaries. If the hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated, both the blood and
the skin of light-skinned people appear blue (cyanosis). In dark-skinned individuals this condition
does not appear because of the masking of hemoglobin. Can indicate problems with the respiratory
system (circulatory system).
-Redness, or erythema
-Pallor, or blanchin
-Jaundice or yellow cast
-Black-and-blue marks, bruises
- If a sebaceous (oil) gland becomes blocked by accumulated sebum (oily secretion) causing the
appearance of a whitehead. If the material oxidizes it forms a blackhead. Whereas inflammation of
the sebaceous glands causes acne. Seborrhea is known as “cradle cap” in infants, is caused by the
overactivity of the sebaceous glands.
- Excessive hairiness, or hirsutism, as well as other signs of masculinization, may result from an adrenal
gland tumor produces large amounts of androgens. This occurs mainly in women. Conditions that
increase the local dermal blood flow (inflammation) may enhance local hair growth.
- Hair thinning can be induced by a number of factors that lengthen follicular resting periods and upset
the normal balance between hair loss and replacement. Some factors are high fever, surgery,
emotional trauma, and certain drugs (excessive vitamin A, some antidepressants, and chemotherapy
- Organic solvents and heavy metals can be lethal to the body. Their absorption through skin into the
blood can cause kidney shut down and brain damage.
Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin
Burns: - devastating threat to the body primarily because of their effects on the skin. Intense heat,
electricity, radiation, electricity, and radiation can inflict it.
- The volume of fluid lost can be estimated by computing the percentage of body surface burned using
the rule of nines. It divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of total body area.
- Burns are classified according to their severity (depth) first-, second-, third-degrees burns.
- First-degree burns indicate just the epidermis is damaged (localized redness, welling, pain;
sunburn). Second-degree burns are injury to the epidermis and upper dermis layer (often
blistering occurs). These burns are often referred to as partial-thickness burns.
1 - Third-degree burns involve the entire thickness of the skin. Often called full-thickness
burns. The burned area appears blanched (gray-white), cherry red, or blackened, and initially
there is little or no edema.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
- Is the least malignant and most common skin cancer.
- Cells of the stratum basale proliferate, invading the dermis and hypodermis. Often caused by sun-
- They are slow growing and metastasis seldom occurs before it is noticed.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- Arises from the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum.
- The lesion appears as a scaly reddened papule (small, rounded elevation) that arises most often around
the scalp, ears, dorsum of the hands, and lower lip.
- It tends to grow rapidly and metastasize to adjacent lymph nodes if not removed.
- Removed by surgery or radiation therapy, chance of complete recovery is good.
- Cancer of the melanocytes.
- Accounts for 5% of the skin cancers.
- It can begin wherever there is pigment. Often appear as spontaneous pigmented moles. Often brown to
black patch that metastasizes rapidly to surrounding lymph and blood vessels.
The American Cancer Society employs the ABCD rule
Asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented spot or mole do not match