Chapter 2: uncovering the past: tools and techniques. Step 1: archaeological sites are found by specialized scientific and geological methods. Step 2: archaeological techniques are used for the excavation of the remains. Provenience (or provenance): the location of an artifact or feature within a site; physical location in 3 dimensional space. *archaeology is destructive: once material has been removed, all information regarding its burial has been lost. Therefore, archaeologists want to prevent illegal/amateur excavation and apply rigorous methods to retrieve any remains. Material culture: objects that people have and make; it is a direct reflection of human culture and behaviour (objects have agency on us) Observed material culture: stuff that gets left behind that an archaeologists finds. Unobserved (past) human/non-human activity: with its limits, take objects and say something about the past (meaning) Interpretation of (past) human activity: goal=to publish something telling a story about the past.