ANT100Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Cultural Ecology, Political Ecology, Procedural Law

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4 Apr 2011
Socio-cultural Anthropology Chapter 7
StateIndependent political entity that controls a geographical territory
with clear boundaries and that defends itself from external threats
with an army and from internal disorder with police
anthropologistsThese scholars share with political scientist and political
philosophers and interest in politics
Politics The ways in which power relations (particularly unequal power
relation) affect human social affairs
Coercive powerThe use of physical force
PowerGeneralized capacity to transform
Persuasive powerRange from the charisma of religious prophet to the formally
proscribed but ubiquitous ability of weaker members of society to
manipulate social rules to promote their own well-being, to the
outright refusal of compliance shown by factory workers who go on
Cultural ecologyFocuses on the way specific, often small scale societies use culture to
fashion adaptation to particular, local ecological settings
Political ecologyLinks particular local populations with their neighbours
Political economyFocus is on political creation of the division of labor in economy
Raiding Short term use of force with a limited goal
Feuding Ongoing, chronic hostilities between groups of neigbours or kin
MediatorFormally recognized, neutral third party to whom the disputing
parties can appeal to settle their differences
Negotiation Verbal argument and compromise
BloodwealthPayment by mediators to mollify the aggrieved party
WarfareInvolves violent conflict on a significantly larger scale
EgalitarianAll members of the society had roughly equal access to valued
Band The oldest human societies we know about archaeologically
depended on foraging, and the egalitarian political form associated
with this mode of subsistence has been called the band
Tribes A social division in a traditional society consisting of families or
communities linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, with
a common culture and dialect, typically having a leader
ChiefdomsA form of social organization more complex than a tribe or band
level society. An individual "chief" provides leadership, and re-
distributes goods and services in the society.
stratification Permanent, inherited inequality between the various component
groups of which the society is composed
SumptuaryMay be the only members of society to wear certain fabrics, or eat
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