Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSG (10,000)
ANT (200)
Chapter 3

ANT253H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Sodium Chloride, Fuxi, Cecil Fielder


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT253H1
Professor
Marcel Danesi
Chapter
3

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
ANT253:(FINAL(EXAM(REVIEW!(CH$3,$4,$5,$7)!
INTRODUCTORY*REVIEW*
"#$%&#%'!"'(')*+!
o Phonetics!,!phonology+!-'*./010$%!)#$%&#%'!*2&$3*!
425$$6!0*!#!71268!9//2/!:!;71;<!.2=10$#>02$!2?!*2&$3*!@>5#>!$'('/!2..&/*A8!!
o Morphology+!B2/3*!!C2B!B2/3*!#/'!30*>/01&>'3!0$!#!.5#0$!2?!*7''.5!>2!=#D'!*7''.5!'??2/>)'*s0
425$$6!0*!#$!1268!9//2/!:!$2>!752$2)2%0.#)!1'.#&*'!an*0$!0>*')?!0*!EF<!1&>!$2>!0$!>50*!*'$>'$.'8!!
o Syntax+!G')#>02$*!#=2$%!B2/3*!0$!#!*'$>'$.'!
52B!B2/3*!#$3!75/#*'*!#/'!2/%#$0H'3!0$>2!*'$>'$.'*!!
o Semantics:0I'#$0$%!7#>>'/$*!
J425$$6!0*!#!126!B52!3/0$D*!70HH#K!!
4255$6!*2='52B!=#$#%'3!>2!3/0$D!50*!70HH#88!2/!3/0$D0$%!#.>02$8!"E"8!
o Pragmatics:0L#/0#>02$!#..2/30$%!>2!>5'!.2$>'M>!0$!B50.5!#!)#$%&#%'!0*!&*'3!#77)0'3!
4255$6!0*!#!%0/)!B52!'#>*!70HH#!
N**&='!>5#>!0$!>50*!.#*'!O255$6!#!126!$#='!0*!#.>&#))6!#!%0/)*!$#='!
"0$%&0*>0.*!.2))'.>'3!3'*./07>0('!0$?2!>2!3'*./01'!)#$%&#%'!#*!#!='#$*!>2!&$3'/*>#$3!.&)>&/'*!>5#>!&*'3!>5'=<!>50*!
='>523!1'.#='!D$2B$!#*!“enthographic”!P!/'Q&0/'*!*'$*0>0(0>6;#10)0>6!>2!*7'#D!)#$%8!
Phenome+!=0$0=#)!&$0>!2?!*2&$3!>5#>!.#$!30*>0$%&0*5!1;B!B2/3*!:!;7;<!;B;!;1;!70$!(*!B0$!(*!10$!
!
CHAPTER*3:*LANGUAGE*AND*SOCIAL*PHENOMENA*
!
INTRODUCTION*
G'70>2/0/'!2?!)#$%&#%'!?2/=*!32!$2>!?2/=!#!.)2*'3!*6*>'=<!08'8!#/'!$2>!#/>0?0.0#))6!.2$*>/&.>'38!R$*>'#3!>5'6!#/2*'!
?/2=!*2='!*2/>!2?!#!need0@7*6.52)2%0.#)<!*2.0#)<!.&)>&/#)A!2/!>2!*'/('!#!function.!
o S2/!'M#=7)'+!&*'!2?!52$2/0?0.*!B5'$!%/''>0$%!12**;7/2?!(*8!?/0'$3*!!?2&$3!>5/2&%52&>!>5'!B2/)38!
T5'/'?2/'<!"#$%&#%'!=0//2/*!*2.0#)!75'$2='$#!
o "#$%8!0*!$2>!O&*>!#!7'/*2$#)!72**'**02$!1&>!#!*2.0#)!>22)!U!B'#72$8!
!
LANGUAGE*AND*SOCIETY*
Social0Gender0
I'$!#$3!B2='$!*7'#D!30??'/'$>)6<!&*'!30??'/'$>!?2/=*!2?!)#$%&#%'!!*2.0#))6!0=72/>#$>!
o 9M#=7)'+!L2.#1!30??!0$!4#7#$'*'<!F2#*#>0<!"#$%&#%'!0$!R*)#$3!2?!V#/01!
T5'*'!#/'!'M#=7)'*!2?!*2.0#)!=#/D'/*;*0%$*!2?!%'$3'/!/2)'!!/'7/'*'$>!*2='!*2.0#))6!*0%$0?0.#$>!75'$2='$#!
I#/D'/*!#/'!$2>!)0=0>'3!>2!(2.#1<!#)*2!('/1!'$30$%*W!T50$D!C0$30!+X!
L0*01)'!%'$3'/!30??'/'$.'*!0$!9$%)0*5!#*!B'))!
o V5'/0*!F/#='/!@YZ[\A![]^*Y!*>&36!!03'$>0?6!B2='$!(*8!='$!*7''.5!
S2&$3!>5#>!B2='$!&*'!*2?>'/!>2$'<!!7/2?#$0>0'*<!!>#%!Q&'*>02$*!
o -#$'*0!*>&36!!#3&)>*!(0*0>!*'M!.)&1!#$3!3'*./01'!'M7'/0'$.'!
I'$;_2='$!3'*./01'3!'M78!30??'/'$>)6!@>50$D!2?!>5'!/'%&)#/!*>'/'2>67'*A!
Social0Class!
N$2>5'/!#/'#!=0//2/'3!U!'$.23'3!16!)#$%&#%'!
_0))0#=!"#12(!YZ``!V)#**0.!*>&36+!
o G'.2/3'3!.2$('/*#>02$!2?!abV!/'*03'$>*!P!?2&$3!30??8!0$!7/2$&$.0#>02$!2?!;/;!
o E/0%0$#))6<!;/;c)'**!7/2$&$.0#>02$!:!7/'*>0%02&*<!#?>'/!__Y<!>50*!*B0>.5'3!
o E1*'/('3!7/2$&$.0#>02$!2?!;/;!#>!d#D*<!I#.6*<!d8F)'0$!!J?2&/>5!?)22/K!!=2*>!7/'*>0%02&*!@7/2$2&$.'3!;/;A!
>2!)'#*>!@;/;c)'**!e!d8F)'0$A!
o d52B*!>5#>!B2/D'/*!03'$>0?0'3!B;!7/'*>0%'!2?!'=7)26'/!U!.&*>2='/*!!B#*!=0//2/'3!0$!7/2$&$.0#>02$!2?!;/;!
S2))2B!&7!YZ[f!*>&36!
o d52B'3!>5#>!7'27)'!2?!#))!.)#**'*!(#/6!7/2$&$.0#>02$!3'7'$30$%!2$!?2/=#)0>6!2?!*7''.5!'('$>!
o Principle0of0Sociolinguistic0Competence:!T5'!=2/'!?2/=#)<!>5'!=2/'!#B#/'!*7'#D'/*!#/'!2?!?2/=#)0>6<!,!
=2/'!>5'!7/2$&$.0#>02$!%2'*!&7!0$!*2.0#)!(#)&'8!

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o I'>523!&*'3!16!"#12(!>2!.2))'.>!3#>#!:!$2B!*>#$3#/3<!.2$*0*>!2?!?0('!>'.5$0Q&'*+!
Y8 V#*&#)!*7''.5!@.2$(8!B;!?#=A!
f8 V#/'?&)!*7''.5!@*7''.5!0$!0$>'/(0'BA!
g8 G'#30$%!*7''.5!@/'#3!#!*>2/6A!
\8 _2/3!"0*>*!
h8 I0$0=#)!X#0/*!@*#&.';*2&/.'<!70$;10$!'>.A!
425$!S0*.5'/!@YZhiA!*52B'3!>5#>!7/2$&$.0#>02$!.2//')#>'3!B;!%'$3'/<!*2.0#)!.)#**<!7'/*2$#)0>6!U!=223!2?!*7'#D'/8!
o R$>'/(0'B'3!%/2&7!2?!*.522)!.50)3/'$!P!&*'3!;c0$%;!EG!;c0$;!@/'#30$%!(*8!/'#30$^A!
o j0/)*!?/2=!#12('!#(%!0$.2='!52&*'52)3!B;!#**'/>0(';32=8!7'/*2$#)0>6!#$3!0?!*>/'**'3!.50)3/'$!>'$3'3!>2!
*B0>.5!?/2=!>5'!&*&#)!;c0$;!>2!;c0$%;!
o N*!0$>'/(0'B!7/2%/'**'3!:!=2/'!/')#M'3!:!*B0>.5!1#.D!>2!;c0$;!!*52B*!#>=2*75'/'!U!=223!7)#6!*0%$0?0.#$>!
/2)'!0$!*7''.5!
T5'/'?2/'<!"#12(!U!S0*.5'/!*>&30'*!.2$.)&3'!>5#>!*7'#D'/*!2?!)#$%&#%'!#/'!*'$*0>0('!>2!12>5+!context0in0which0
language0is0used!#$3!0>*!specific0variants.!
Personality0and0Language0
4#='*!X'$$'1#D'/!@f]YYA!122D!
o S2&$3!72)0>0.0#$*!>'$3!>2!&*'!JRK!#!)2>!>2!7'/*2$#)0H'!=*%!0$!2/3'/!>2!.2$('6!.2==0>='$>!>2!.#&*'!
o E1#=#!:!)'#*>!JRK!&*'/!*0$.'!T/&=#$8!d52B*!.2$?03'$.'!U!*')?!#**&/#$.'!
o S&$.>2/!B2/3*!@7/2$2&$*;#/>0.)'*A!/'('#)!=2/'!#12&>!7'/*2$#)0>6!>5#$!.2$>'$>!B2/3*!@$2&$;#3O8A!!
S&$.>2/!B2/3*!5#('!J&$3'/!>5'!/#3#/K!Q&#)0>6!!)'#30$%!>2!>/#.'*!2?!*2.0#)!03'$>0>6!
o d>#/>'3!/'*'#/.50$%!1;B!)#$%&#%'!?2/=!U!7'/*2$#)0>6!16!/'#30$%!30#/0'*!2?!*&1O'.>*!B;!>/#&=#;3'7/'**02$!
-0*.2('/'3!7/2$2&$*!B'/'!0$30.#>2/*!2?!7'/*2$#)!5'#)>58!T/#&=#!/'.2('/6!/'Q&0/'*!J7'/*7'.>0('!
*B0>.50$%K!>5#>!7/2$2&$*!?#.0)0>#>'8!!
T23#6!Sk;TB0>>'/!:!*#=7)'!*0H'!30#/0'*!
o X'$$'1#D'/!#)*2!?2&$3!>5#>!&*'!2?!?&$.>2/!B2/3*!.2//')#>'*!B;!#%';%'$3'/;.)#**!30??'/'$.'*!
b2&$%<!B2='$<!7'27)'!?/2=!)2B'/!.)#**!:!&*'!=2/'!7/2$2&$*!U!#&M0)0#/6!('/1*!@)#.D0$%!72B'/!
/'Q&0/'*!7/2?2&$3!'$%#%'='$>!B;!2>5'/*!>52&%5>*A!
-2'*!$2>!'M7)#0$!B56!?&$.>2/!B2/3*!:!?2&$3!=2/'!0$!*2='!%/2&7*<!$''3!=2/'!'=70/0.#)!>'*>0$%!
9('/62$'!-E9d!5#('!#!J7'/*2$#)!)#$%&#%'!*>6)'K!!idiolect8!!
o R$30(03&#)*!=#$$'/!2?!*7'#D0$%!>5#>!03'$>0?0'*!50=;5'/!0$*>#$>)6!!=#$$'/!2?!*7'#D0$%<!>2$'<!7/2$&$.0#>02$<!
.520.'!2?!(2.#1;*'$>'$.'*!&*'3!'>.8!
Styles0and0Registers0
X'$$'1#D'/^*!*>&36!=0**'*!>5#>!>5'!&*'!2?!7/2$2&$*!0*!30/'.>)6!/')#>'3!>2!*>6)'*!U!/'%0*>'/*8! !
o 9M+!!&*'!2?!JRK!=0%5>!/')#>'!>2!)0?'*>6)';7/2?'**02$!
o d.0'$>0*>*;#.#3'=0.*!&*'!=2/'!7#**0('!*'$>'$.'*<!/'3&.'*!$''3!?2/!7/2$2&$*!
Registers+!_#6*!2?!*7'#D0$%;B/0>0$%!3'*0%$'3!>2!=#>.5+!YA!?2/=#)0>6!2?!*0>&#>02$!fA!='30&=!&*'3!@*7'#D0$%!(*8!
B/0>0$%A!gA!a#>&/'!2?!>270.!0$(2)('3!0$!>5'!*7''.5!#.>8!
o S2/!'M+!&*'!2?!%22316'!@50%5)6!?2/=#)<!=03?2/=#)<!0$?2/=#)A!!(#/0'*!B0>5!*0>&#>02$!#$3!.2$>'M><!08'8!
J%22316'K!B0>5!7/2?<!J*''!6#K!B0>5!?/0'$3!
I0*&*'!2?!?2/=!:!1/'#.5!2?!'>0Q&'>>'!2/!*0%$!2?!#$2=#)2&*!.2==&$0.#>02$8!
9M+!4#(#$'*'!*2.0'>6!:!30??'/'$>!/'%0*>'/*!2?!*7''.5!?2/!30??'/'$>!*2.0#)!.)#**'*!@?#/='/*;>2B$*?2)DA!
_'!0$*>#$>)6!/'.2%$0H'!/'%0*>'/*!#*!?2/=#)!(*8!0$?2/=#)!@'M+!1&.D!(*8!32))#/A!3&'!>2!*7'.0?0.!)0$%&0*>0.!?2/=*!!
o X52$2)2%0.#)<!)'M0.#)<!%/#==#>0.#)!
o V)077'3;#11/'(0#>'3!:!&*&#))6!0$?2/=#)!
"0$%&0*>!I#/>0$!422*!@YZ`[A!!122D!.#))'3!JS0('!.)2.D*!2?!9$%)0*5K!
o N/%&'3!>5#>!B'!#))!&$.2$*.02&*)6!&*'!*2.0#)!/'%0*>'/*!#>!30??8!>0='*!2?!>5'!3#6!
o T50$D!#12&>!52B!B'!*7'#D!0$!>5'!=2/$<!e!B2/D<!B0>5!#!)2('/<!B0>5!#!*&7'/02/!!*52B*!/'%0*>'/*!#/'!*6$.'3!
B0>5!3#0)6!)0?'!/2&>0$'*!
o "''B#6!0$!%/#==#>0.#);)'M0.#)!.2$>'M><!$2$'>5')'**!.2$*>/#0$'3!16!*0>&#>02$<!*2.0#)!/&)'*<!/'%0*>'/*!
9M+!.2$('60$%!#$%'/+!J-2$^>!*#6!>5#>!0302>WK!(*8!JR>!0*!1'*>!>5#>!62&!$2>!*#6!>5#>WK!
S0/*>!'M!.#$!1'!1'>B''$!>B2!7'27)'!B52!#/'!.)2*'!(*8!f$3!:!=2/'!?2/=#)8!d52B*!52B!.520.'!0*!
.2$*>/#0$'3!16!*0>&#>02$!U!*2.0#)!?#.>2/*8!
Style:!B#6!2?!&*0$%!)#$%&#%'!>5#>!*52B*!*'$*0>0(0>6!>2;&$3'/*>#$30$%!2?!*7'.0?0.!*0>&#>02$*;)'(')*!2?!?2/=#)0>68!
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version