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Chapter 4

ANT253H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Communicative Competence, Speech Community, Quotative

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Marcel Danesi

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Social dialects (sociolects) : Linguistic variation that occurs in social spaces
Social alignment: Those who speak the standard variety of a language tend to have better career opportunities, financial
achievement, etc.
Dialect speakers, are perceived by employers to be more likely to be less educated and thus are deemed as less
Dialect speakers are more likely to be under-represented in the mainstream media and in politics, and are over-
represented in negative ways
Ex. Group of lawyers, sports fans, etc
Speech community: A group of people sharing a common language
Communicative competence: The ability to use the code of the community in an appropriate or effective way.
Group based (Cryptolect): Arises within cliques and special groups for reasons of solidarity and in-group
There are two main types of slang:
When slang expressions gain broad currency, they are called colloquialisms
Ex. "You agree with me, don't you?"
This is how you do it, right?
A sentence that ends with a tagged on phrase that is designed to seek approval, agreement, or consent
Tag Questions
"It's kinda good to say this"
"As for me…."
"From what I know…"
"….I guess"
A word or phrase that makes utterances less forceful
"you know"
A word or phrase that indicates to listeners that the speaker has not finished speaking, but has
simply paused to gather further thoughts.
He's like, "I don’t know"
And she said, "well find out!"
A word or expression that introduces a quotation
She was like, "whatever"
That drink is like 20 dollars
Overtime, like has become a quotative word, as well as a quantifier
The two types of cryptolects are: argots and cants
These characterize the speech of criminal or outlaw groups
"Thieves cants" were widespread in sixteenth century England
Chapter 4 Notes
Thursday, October 11, 2018
4:03 PM
Chapter 4 Notes Page 1
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