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Chapter 9

Evolutionary Anthropology Chapter 9.docx

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James Stinson

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C H A P T E R 9 : A P P L I E D A N T H R O P O L O G Y Applied anthropology: application of anthropological knowledge to solve practical problems PRIMATOLOGISTS AND APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY  Primate-source countries: countries with naturally occurring primate populations  Humans near protected areas live in extreme poverty  Relocating residents threatens lifestyle and culture (resentment for conservation biologists)  Local people must be actively involved in protection & management of protected areas APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY AND HABITAT DISTURBANCE  Sustainable use of local forests (loggers use forests not exploited by animals)  Local communities set up and maintain small plantations for economically desirable plant species (can sustain primate populations in industrial landscapes)  Primatologists’ study areas prevent forest disturbances  Primatologists and agricultural scientists train local people to shift to sustainable farming methods APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY AND PRIMATE HUNTING  Hunting pressures along continuum of intensities (low to high) and utilization (local to international)  Primatologists help hunters find alternate forms of employment and participating in international conservation efforts  Local influence on conservation (ex. Huaorani people practice traditional ways of hunting in national parks)  Hire local hunters as research assistants  Primatologists participate in in national & international efforts to prevent unsustainable hunting of primates APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY AND PRIMATE ECOTOURISM  Ecotourism: low-impact, culturally-sensitive tourism that can generate income for local people  Less charismatic species gain conservation benefits due to coexistence with other primates  Disadvantages: o Primates show signs of stress (fleeing, screaming) o Endemic to areas with armed conflicts and political instability MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY  Variety of scientific disciplines  Diseases, nutrition and health APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION, AND DISEASE  Infectious disease: illness that can be transmitted; caused by microbial agent  Co-evolution: each factor evolves in response to selection pressures imposed by the other  Chronic disease: permanent disease, non-reversible pathology Infectious Disease  Some people exposed to low pathogenic (capable of causing disease) strain of virus  did not become ill or infected  Increased genetic variability provides greater chance for natural resistance (also applies to bacterial resistance to antibiotics)  Mutations from biological evolution & are resistant to medical intervention o Antigenic drift: small changes to virus gradually accumulate o Antigenic shift: rapid and major changes due to mutations  Too much antigenic shift (viruses develop faster that medical intervention) and global gene flow  causes pandemic (spread of infectious disease throughout country, continent or world)  Death rates of infectious disease: low for developed countries and high for developing countries Co-Evolution of Humans and Pathogens  Beneficial to be infected by multiple pathogens instead of one b/c benign pathogens out-compete violent pathogens 1. CO-EVOLUTION (“arms race”)  Each change in a species results in a counter-change of another species a. PROGRESSIVE CO-EVOLUTION: later pathogens achieve higher infection rates than earlier pathogen forms b. ESCALATORY CO-EVOLUTION: later pathogens as useless as ancestors because hosts are adapted to them, but dangerous
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