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ANTB22 Textbook Notes.docx

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Bianca Dahl

ANTB22 Textbook Notes Chapter 1  The tropical forests where most primates live are humid, shadowy places.  Primates are special study subjects because their geographic concentration on the tropics has placed many species at risk of extinction from deforestation and hunting pressures, knowledge about primates is now widely recognized as being essential to conservation efforts on their behalf.  Rapid advances in comparative genomics continue to be made as the number of primate genomes that have been sequenced has grown, challenging the ethical as well as biological  Hierarchical society of baboons, in which access to important resources such as food and mate are determined by agnostic, or aggressive and submissive interactions between females and males  Egalitarian relationships  Female baboons spend their lives in their natal groups, or birth groups, and maintain strong affiliative bonds with their closest relatives  Phylogenetic : evolutionary history  Nowadays, many questions in primate behavioural ecology focus on efforts to under the ultimate or evolutionary function of behavior  These functional approaches address the question of why primates have been selected to behave as they do under particular conditions  Ontogenetic level of explanation: when a particular trait or behavior emerges during an individual’s lifestime  Female chimp uses twigs to ‘fish’ for termites that build earthy, mound-like nests (termites provide protein and lipids and other nutritns essential to female, but not male reproduction  Ethnographic-type reports: pioneering researchers went to remote locations to find wild primates, and eventually winning the trust of the primates  Once primates are habituated to the prescce of an observer, they go about their business as usual instead of fleeing or halting their activities when humans are near  Ethnograms: inventory of all behaviours by an animal  Anthropocentric: examine promates to umnderstand more about humans, date back to the beginning of primate field research  Arboreal: howler monkeys that Carpenter studied are tree-dwelling creatures which share only a distant ancestry to humans  Semiterrestrial: partially ground0dwelling monkeys  Activity budgets: how primates allocate their time to these essential activities  Diurnal: most primates are active during the daylight hours and inactive at night  Some of the primates living on the island of Madagascar are cathemeral meaning that they have the capacity to be active by day or night  Nocturnal:  Predator sensitivity: the degree to which they adjust their behavior to reduce their risks as prey  Energy minimizers: devote substantial proportions of their time to resting, and little time and energy to travelling.  Energy maximizers: rest less and devote more of their time and evergy to searching for and traveling between patches of foods  Insectivores: consuming insects  Frugivores: fruit-eaters  Faunivores: non-insect invertebrates  Folivores: leaves, stems, bark  Some primates find most of their foods in the understory: area below the trees but above the ground  Some even climb up into the emergeny trees that tower above the rest of the canopy  The distance they travel each day is measured in terms of day ranges or daily path lengths, and the area they utilize is called theirhome range  Locomotor systems: determined how quickly and efficiently they are able to move about in both two and three dimensional space  Territorial primates are those that defend the entire resource area they exploit from intrusions by other members of their speicies  Most primates are gregarious: they spend most of their lives in social groups  Solitary primates are rarely seen with another individual except during brif periods to mate or during the period of infant dependency  Population density: number of individuals per unit area  Cohesiveness: whether group members remain together on a routine basis  Chimpanzees have a fluid fission-fusion society: in which group members split up into smaller parties and reunite in response to daily fluctuations in the availability and distribution of their preferred foods  Patterns of dispersal determine whether individuals of one or both sexes leave their natal groups to join another established group or form their own groups with other members of their speicies  Socionomic sex ratio: ratio of females to males of reproductive age within groups  Females are philopatric: remaining in their natal groups for life  Field studies provide opportunities to evaluate how behavior is affected by unpredictable ecological and demographic pressures, which more closely approximate the evolutionary circumstances under which primates evolved.  Evolutionary theory: understand why individual primates behave as they do in the societies they live in, and why they live in their particular socieites  Reproductive success:  Fitness:  Adaptive  Inclusive fitness:  Behavioural ecology:  Sociobiology  Behavioural adaptation:  Genotype  Phenotype  Phenotypi plasticity:  Strategy  Feeding strategies  Social strategies: behavior that lead primates to live in different kinds of groups and affect how they maintain their relationships within these groups  Reproductive strategies: behavior that increase the likelihood of gaining access to mates and insuring thieir offspring’s survival  Life history strategies: trade-offs in patterns of development from gestation length to interbirth intervals , to age at first reproduction, that influence the behavior of individuals at different times int heir lives  Life history traits:  Referential models:  The Amboseli monkeys faces additional challenges as their habitats and populations are modified by increasingly intrusive human activities  Strategic models:  Such comparisons might lead to the conclusion that individuals in larger groups devote more time to feeding than those in smaller groups.  Populations: of primates comprise all individuals that could potentially interbreed  Intraspecific: within species comparison  Interspecific: in between species comparisons  Niche construction: through their social interactions with one another, primates can influence their own and one another’s social environments Chapter 2  Stereoscopic vision: forward facing eye sockets allow the fields of vision from each eye to overlap that makes accurate depth perception possible  Cercopithecines: baboons in Africa and macaques in Asia, and a variety of arboreal monkeys collectively called guenons  Brachiators:  Quadrumnoua:oranguatans use their arms and legs to hoist their heavy bodies through the canopy  Specializations: such as our bipedality, distinguish a species form its ancestor  these specializations are known as derived traits Chapter 5  Four options available to males when females distribute themselves to avoid one another and the intragroup competition for food that would arise if the were to live together 1) A male can join up with a single female on a shared and mutually defended territory from which together they exclude intruders of both sexes 2) He can try to repel competitors from a territory that encompasses the smaller core areas used by a few solitary females 3) He can join forces whith other males to help raise a femle’s offspring 4) He can join forces with other males in defending several scattered females from other groups of males  In soe species, a male who attempts o single-handedly monopolize ccess to more than one solitary female is taking big risks, presumably in exchange for potentially big reproductive gains  Femlae orangutans are thought to avoid exclusive associations with a single male because of the greater energy and time expenditure they would incur in finding sufficient food with another adult around.  The large adult male orangutans are also endowed with large canines and huge fleshy cheek pads, and thrat sacs to blast their long-distance calls. The air stored in their threat sacs resontates so that their warning vocalizations can be hears for up to a kilometer  Female orangutans generally resist the sexual advances made by transient males, particularly at times when they are most likely to conceive  There are two
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