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Chapter 4

Anthropology - Chapter 4.docx

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Ivan Kalmar

Chapter 4: Applying Anthropology Two major differences between anthropologists and many other experts 1. Emphasis on talking with local people, using ethnographic techniques 2. Holistic approach Westernization: the diffusions of European cultures into tribal societies Development anthropology” branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues and in and the cultural dimension of economic development Equity, increased: a reduction in absolute poverty and a fairer (more even) distribution of wealth Overinnovation: characteristic of development projects that require major changes in people’s daily lives, especially ones that interfere with customary subsistence pursuits This findings shows that using anthropological expertise in planning to ensure cultural compatibility is cost effective. To maximize social and economic benefits, projects must 1. Be culturally compatible 2. Respond to locally perceived needs 3. Involve men and women in planning and carrying out the changes that affect them 4. Harness traditional organizations 5. Be flexible Underdifferentiation: planning fallacy of viewing less-developed countries as an undifferentiated group; ignoring cultural diversity and adopting a uniform approach (often ethnocentric) for very different types of project beneficiaries *** tendency to view the less developed countries as more alike than they are, development agency ignore cultural diversity Indigenous Models In a sense the descent group is preadapted to equitable nation development. In Madagascar, members of local descent groups have customarily pooled their resources to educate their members. Once educated, these men and women gain economically secure positions in the nation. They then share the advantages of their new positions with their kin. For example, they give room and board to rural cousins attending school and help them find jobs. Malagasy administrations appear generally to have shared a commitment to democratic economic development. Perhaps this is because government officials are of peasantry descent or have strong personal ties to it. By contrast, in latin American countries, the elites and the lower class have different origins and no strong connections through kinship, descent, or marriage Realistic development promotes change but no overinnovation. Many changes are possible if the aim is to preserve local systems while making them work better. Successful economic development projects respect, or at least don’t attack, local cultural patterns. Effective development draws on indigenous cultural practices and social structures Puerto Rican valued education more when interviewed Urban. Vs. Rural Redfield view that cities are centers through which cultural innovations spread to rural, and tribal areas He proposed that urbanization can be studied along rural-urban continuum Maragret Mead: I must admit that I personally measure success in terms of the contributions an individual makes to her or his fellow human beings pg 69 Medical Anthropology 3 ways of identifying, classifying, and explaining illness, called disease theories, are: 1. Personalistic
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