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ANT100Y1 (103)
Chapter 6

Anthropology - Chapter 6.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Ivan Kalmar
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 6 Making a LivingForagingPeople rely on nature to make a living Requires less work than farmingForaging traditionally correlates with the band social unit and with a mobile lifestyle Modern foragers live on marginal lands land not good for agricultural production and do not survive solely by foragingAll modern foragers live in nation states and depend to some extent on government assistance they are not isolatedBasarwa Africamoved from land critics claim this resettlement turned a society of free hunter gathers into communities dependent on food aid and government handouts BAND Basic unit of social organization among foragers A band includes fewer than 100 people it often splits up seasonallyMost foragers are egalitarian contrasts in prestige are minor and are based on gender and age Horticulture nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of timeSimple toolsSlash and burn techniquesAgriculture nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labour Domesticated Animals Irrigation while horticulturalists must wait the rainy season agriculturalists can schedule their planting in advance because they control water Terracing cut into hillside and build stage after stage of terrace fields rising above Costs and Benefits of Agriculture main advantage is that longterm yield per area is far greater and more dependable no needs to maintain a reserve of uncultivated land as horticulturists doAgriculture differs from horticulture in several ways Agriculture 1 Uses land intensively and continuously2 Requires more labour3 Results in permanent changes to the land as with irrigation canals and terracing4 Provides a greater longterm yield5 Relies on just a few staple goods
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