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Chapter 8

Anthropology- Chapter 8.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Ivan Kalmar
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 8: FAMILY, KINSHIP, AND MARRIAGE Much of kinship is culturally constructed, based on learning and and variable from culture to culture Family of orientation: nuclear family in which one is born and grows up Family of procreation: nuclear fam established when one marries and has children Neolocality: married couples are expected to establish a new place of residence – a “home of their own” Extended Family: include three or more generations Collateral Household: siblings, and their spouse, and children Descent Group: a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry, fundamental to tribal community and it is an ascribed status  Exogamous  Unilineal descent: matrilineal or patrilineal descent  Patrilineal descent MORE COMMON than matrilineal descent  A lineage uses demonstrated descent LD  Clans use stipulated descent CS  Common among nonindustrial food producers (horticulturalists, pastoralists, and agriculturalists) is permanent and INCLUDES MULTIPLE GENERATIONS Nuclear Family is impermanent and is common in foraging and industrial societies’ Nuer of Sudan kinship is socially constructed. The bride’s children were considered the legitimate offspring of her female husband, who was biologically a woman but socially a man, and the descent line continued When strict patrilineality, the mother is not a relative but a kind of inlaw who has married a member of your own group –your father. With strict matrilineality, the father isn’t a relative because he belongs to a different descent group Incest varies from culture to culture PAGE 152 Endogamy: marriage between people of the same social group  AN EXAMPLE IS INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM  Traditionally Indians had to marry a member of another descent group from the same cast. This shows that rules of exogamy and endogamy can coexist in the same society If a Nuer woman married to a woman can be oater of a child she did not father why cant two lesbians be the maters (socially recognized mothers) of a child one of them did not father Several Native American groups had figures known as BERDACHES  these were biological men who assumed many of the mannerism, behaviour patterns, and tasks of women. sometimes they would marry men, who shared the products of their labour from hunting and traditional male roles, as the Berdache fulfilled the traditional wifely role Progeny Price: A gift from the husband and his
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