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Chapter 6

ANT100Y1 Online Reading: chapter 6 and 8 notes.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Ivan Kalmar
Semester
Fall

Description
• Chapter 6: Phonology 6.1)  General - No two speakers speak the same way - “word for word” phenomenon does not mean people use the same sounds ( or example, the pronunciation of different types of P’s in words or sentences all stacked in the same sound category which isn’t ‘’literally’’ true) - P is with puff of air vs. P is without - Phonology # phonetics because it focuses on the impact of sound distinctions in languages and their different functions ( like in Hindu) 6.2)  Accent - Accents are a matter of phonetics ( nature of sounds instead of the function of their distinctions) - After 11-14 years old ( critical period), accents are inevitable - Foreign accents can determine roles and social hierarchy 6.3)  Concepts needed to understand phonology - Positions and contexts ( sound around a morpheme) - Phoneme and allophone: a) p occurs at the beginning of stressed syllables, and b) occurs everywhere else (for example, after s as in spit). “Mutually h exclusive contexts” here means that p occurs only in the position described in a), while p= occurs only in position b). - Phoneme: a unit of a languages sound system that may include two or more positional variants or allophones, in much the same way that a morpheme may include two or more allomorphs. 6.4)  each language imposes its own phonology on the sounds of its language - Generally speaking, sounds are not heard objectively but through a filter 6.5)  Minimal pairs: two words that are found in the same context but differ only in one phone • Chapter 8: language and society identity Subtle ways in which variation in the way people speak functions in creating and perpetuating social distinctions (social class, age and gender dialects) 8.1)  Standard and none-standard language - There is a form that the public considers to be “correct.” - Standard
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