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Chapter 1

ANTA01 chapter 1 and 2.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Dr.Joyce Parga
Semester
Summer

Description
ANTA01 NOTES (1­2)—Professor Parga Chapter 1 - Anthropology addresses the entire scope of the human experience and brings multiple perspectives to bear  on what it means to be human - Use the scientific method, but also interpretative methods - Bio­cultural approach:  o Bio­cultural evolution underlies anthropological perspective  o ▯Human= biology + culture o Biology and culture have shaped human evolution o Human culture­ the strategy by which people adapt to the natural and social environments in which  they live  Technologies, food sources,  housing, clothing  Culture shapes perception of the external environment: worldview  Society­ grp of ppl who share a common culture  Enculturation­ children learn the values and beliefs of the family, peer groups.. and society  as they are raised o Evolution: change in genetic makeup from one gen to the next o Unproductive to separate the two approaches - What is anthropology? o Cultural, biological/physical, archeological, linguistic o Cultural­ human behavior, rooted in Enlightenment thinking (what is knowable, primitive, traditional,  colonialism)  Urban, medical, applied anthropology o Physical­ human biology within the framework of evolution + bio­cultural interxn  paleoanthropology (study of human evolution) has revealed fossil records,  goal is to  identify various hominin species and “map” them  anthropometry­ measurement of human body parts (measuring skeletal elements called  osteometry)  genetic data impt  molecular anthropologists­ relationship btw humans and primates (genetic)  primatology­ the study of nonhuman primates, help us understand human behavior  primate paleontology­ primate fossil records, can make assumptions about social  behaviour  osteology­ study of the skeleton  paleopathology­ a sub field of osteology that studies traces of disease and injury in human  skeletal remains • gives us info about the lives of people in the past, the history of certain disease  processes  forensic anthropology­ related to osteology and paleopathology, the application of  anthropological techniques to legal issues  physical anthropologists need thorough knowledge of soft tissue around bones and teeth,  anatomical studies o Archeology   The understand the past using human remains  Primary data: artifacts­ objects made or modified by hominins, material culture­ the  physical manifestations of human activities (tools, art, structures)  Do NOT study non­primate species (paleontologists)  Classical archeologists­ study the classical Mediterranean civilizations  Anthropological archeology­ using archeology to understand the development, origins,  and diversity of modern humans • Covers the entire span of the anthropological record­the material remains of the  human past • Analyses the sites in which past humans lived  Assumption in archeology: Many human activities and their byproducts enter the  archeological record in patterned, knowable ways that reflect the behaviors, values, and  beliefs of the individuals who created them  Historical archeology­ examine the archaeological and documentary record of past  cultures (written evidence)  Ethnoarchaeologists­ blur past and present lines, conduct ethnographic research with  modern peoples for archeological ends/purposes  Grew out of the Enlightenment (Darwinism, geology evidence, etc)­ Europe  Antiquarian­ relating to interests in objects and texts of the past­ North America • To understand Native American artifacts • Stratigraphic­ relating to the depositional levels, or strata, of an archeological site   New dating techniques: radiocarbon dating, computer technologies  Move towards questions of how people lived from simple dating or mapping  Public archeology­ education, media, community involvement, CRM­ cultural resource  management o Linguistic  The study of the origins of human speech and language in general as well as specific  languages  Trace historical ties btw languages and grps  The relationship btw language and culture: how language reflects perception of a group  and how 
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