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Chapter 3

Archaeology Ch. 3 and 4 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Chazan

Part 2 Intro: o Biological classification of humans:  Species: Homo sapiens All living humans  Genus: Homo Humans and immediate ancestors  Superfamily: Hominoidae Humans, orangutans, gorillas, (hominoids) chimps and gibbons  Primates Hominoids, monkeys, and prosimians o species: a group of intimately related and physically similar organisms that can produce fertile offspring o hominoids: the biological superfamily that includes humans, great apes, and gibbons o phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a species o ontogeny: the growth and development of an individual organism o nuclear DNA: DNA located in the cell nucleus; combines from each parent o mitochondrial DNA: DNA located outside of the cell nucleus; inherited exclusively from the mother o molecular clock: method that allows the timing of the split between lineages to be calculated on the basis of the degree of genetic similarity o paleoanthropologist: scientist who studies the evolutionary history of the hominoids o Aegyptopithecus: a fossil primate that lived 56-23 million years ago o Miocene era: the period 23 million to 5 million years ago when there was an explosion in the number of hominoid species Chapter 3: o hominins: the members of the human lineage after it split with the chimpanzee lineage o Sahelanthropus tchadensis: a possible early member of the hominin lineage. Fossils of the species were discovered in Chad in levels dating to 7mya o Ardipithecus ramidus: an early species in the hominin lineage. This species, which lived aprox. 4.5mya, is known from fossils discovered in 1992 at the site of Aramis in Ethiopia. o radiation: a period in which there is a rapid increase in the diversity of a single lineage. During the period between 4 million and 2 million years ago, there was a radiation in the hominin lineage. o australopithecine: a hominin genus that lived in Africa between 4mya and 2.5mya. Genus or Date Brain Size Characteristics Found In Species Australopithecus 4.0-2.5mya 450-475 cc Bipedal East, West and South Africa Kenyanthropus 3.5mya 450-475 cc Similar to East Africa Australopithecus Paranthropus 2.5-1.4mya 450-475 cc Massive molars East and and chewing South Africa muscles Homo habilis 2.5-1.6mya 500-800 cc Increase brain East and size South Africa Homo erectus 1.9mya – 750-1,250 cc Further Africa, Asia, 45,000 (?) increase in and Europe years ago brain size, dispersal out of Africa o Laetoli: location in Tanzania where tracks of australopithecine footprints were found, showing that australopithecines walked upright o Homo habilis: this hominin is the earliest species to be assigned to the genus Homo. o Homo erectus: the first hominin found on sites outside of Africa. The earliest known Homo erectus fossils date to the period between 1.9 and 1.5mya o East African Rift Valley: a geological feature stretching from East Africa to the Middle East that is the richest context for the recovery of early hominin archaeological sites o Olduvai Gorge: the most impressive and important location in the East African Rift Valley for the study of human evolution o Lower Paleolithic: the period when hominins began producing stone tools Olduvai Gorge Bed Date Masek Beds 0.6-0.4 mya Bed IV 0.8-0.6 mya Bed III 1.15-0.8 mya Bed II 1.7-1.15 mya Bed I 1.9-1.7 mya o Oldowan Industry: Lower Paleolithic stone tool industry, dated between 1.9 and 1.15 mya, characterized by choppers and flakes o Acheulian Industry: Lower Paleolithic stone tool industry dated in Africa between 1.7 million and 200,000 years ago, characterized by bifacial tools including handaxes and cleavers o bifaces: characteristic tools of the Acheulian. Bifaces include handaxes and cleavers o Taï Forest: location where chimpanzees use stone hammers and anvils to break open hard nuts. The tools are not manufactured, but, rather, are used as found o Hadar: location in the East African Rift Valley where many important fossils, including the near-complete fossil of an australopithecine, and the earliest known stone tools have been discovered o Lokalalei: an archaeological site in Kenya dating to 2.3mya. Analysis of refit cores from the site indicates that stone tool manufacture at this early date was more complex than anticipated o FLK North (FLKN): the site in Olduvai Gorge where the remains of an
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