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Anthropology (246)
ANT200Y1 (17)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Michael Chazan

Chapter 1 Getting Started in Archaeology 11 Reading the Landscape Survey DesignCarry out archaeological surveys to discover sites as well as to understand the distribution of sites within a region how sites are distributed across the landscape or where different activities took placesometimes also to determine whether sites will be destroyed by constructionRecording everything is usually impossible so archaeologists must determine a strategy to sample the survey area carefully selected sample used to represent a larger population Archaeological surveys map the physical remains of human activityGeological FactorsSometimes sites are only discovered because natural erosion has cut through the accumulation of sediments exposing fossiland artefactbearing levelsErosion can be bad though for archaeologists many times stream channels have cut through sites and redeposited material far downstreammust now determine whether material picked upwas originally deposited there or whether its been redeposited by erosionIn situ material is recovered in the place where it was originally depositedOften possible to identify material thats been transported by water on the basis of characteristic wear patterns and the absence of very small fragmentsRecovery Methods and GISIn a depositional environment constant buildup of sediments artifacts may not always be found on the surfacemany rely on digging small test pits to find buried artifactsTechnologies archaeologists use to increase ability to detect archaeological deposits and to collect and organize spatial information y methods of remote sensing including aerial and satellite photography play a critical role both in discovering sites and in orienting exploration y geophysical techniques are used to gain an idea of what lies below the surface of a site without having to excavate allowing archaeologists to detect invisible features two main methods used are magnetometry and groundpenetrating radar y the precise location of archaeological sites can be determined with handheld GPSsGeographical information systems GISa suite of software applications that allow spatial data to be brought together and consolidatedworks as a series of layers have a topographic map aerial picture soil map etc all of the same region must know the exact longitude and latitude of 2 or 3 points in the area on the map to be georeferencedthen the image is digitized as either a digital image with digitized points or raster image scannedfigure 11to help archaeologists visualize a region topographic maps can be used to create 3dimensional models of the terrain and to statistically test the association of spots with elevation slope and soils
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