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ANT200Y1 (17)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Chazan

Chapter 4 From Homo Erectus to Neanderthals 41 Defining the Ice AgePleistocenealso known as the Ice Age geological era that began 18 million years ago and is characterized by the frequent buildup and retreat of continental ice sheetsthe evolution of Neanderthals took place during this timePleistocene climate change developed on a basis of features of the landscapeex terminal moraine raised ridge that formed at the point where a glacial ice sheet reached its max extent Glacial chronology for the Pleistocene involving 4 major cycles of advanceretreat of ice sheets y In Europe from earliest to latestGunz Mindel Riss and Wurm y In North America last 2 glacial advancesthe Illinoian and the WisconsinOxygen isotope curverecord of fluctuations in global climate climate record produced by the analysis of deepsea corestoolbox on pg 114 is helpfulglacial and interglacial events given numbers from most recent now in Oxygen Isotope Stage 1 to the oldest y Colder climatemore ice on landless water in the oceanhigh ratio of O18 to O16 y Warmer climateless ice on landmore water in the oceanlow ratio of O18 TO O16 42 Before the Neanderthals The Initial Occupation of Western EuropeDmanisiin Europe evidence of occupation dating back approx 17 million yearsHominin sites older than 500000 years in Western Europe are rareAtapuercaTD6 level of Gran Dolina site stone tools flakes cores and hominin remains Homo antecessor dated to 800000 years agothe earliest reliable evidence for human occupation in Europe The Acheulian ProblemChopper and flake tools characterize most Lower Paleolithic sites in East Asia Bosesite in southern China dated to 800000 years ago has produced a stone tool industry that includes hand axesearliest date for Acheulian industry anywhere outside of AfricaAnother site outside of Africa is Gesher Benot Yaakov in Israel dated 780000 years ago hand axes and cleavers are common bifaces made on very large flakes Eurasian Acheulianfound on sites across Europe the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent beginning 500000 years ago The hand axe is the characteristic tool of the Eurasian Acheulian cleavers almost completely absent significant contrast to African Acheuliany Also includes retouched flakesflakes modified after being struck off a core characteristic type of flake tool the sidescraper 1 or 2 edges regularized and strengthened by retouching Boxgrovesite in England dated to 500000 years ago is among the earliest known Acheulian sites in Europehand axe debris found there lots of faunal remainsClactoniansimple flake tool industry contemporary with the Acheulian in EnglandHand axe manufacture never become widespread among early hominins in East Asia some industries that did not involve this type of manufacture
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