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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 test review.pdf

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Marcel Danesi

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ANT253:  FINAL  EXAM  REVIEW  (CH  3,  4,  5,  7)   INTRODUCTORY  REVIEW   • Language  Levels:   o Phonetics  &  phonology:  Describing  language  sounds    Johnny  is  a  pboy.  Error  =  /pb/,  combination  of  sounds  (that  never  occurs).     o Morphology:  words    How  words  are  distributed  in  a   chain  of  speech  to  make  speech  effortles s    Johnny  is  an  boy.  Error  =  not  phonological  because   an  in  itself  is  OK,  but  not  in  this  sentence.     o Syntax:  Relations  among  words  in  a  sentence    how  words  and  phrases  are  organized  into  sentences     o Semantics:  Meaning  patterns    “Johnny  is  a  boy  who  drinks  pizza”      Johhny  somehow  managed  to  drink  his  pizza..  or  drinking  action.  LOL.   o Pragmatics:  Variation  according  to  the  context  in  which  a  language  is  used  applied    Johhny  is  a  girl  who  eats  pizza    Assume  that  in  this  case  joh hny  a  boy  name  is  actually  a  girls  name   • Linguistics  collected  descriptive  info  to  describe  language  as  a  means  to  understand  cultures  that  used  them,  this   method  became  known  as   “enthographic”  –  requires  sensitivity/ability  to  speak  lang.   • Phenome:  minimal  unit  of  sound  that  can  distinguish  b/w  words  =  /p/,  /w/  /b/  pin  vs  win  vs  bin      TER  3:  LANGUAGE  AND  SOCIAL  PHENOMENA   INTRODUCTION   • Repitorire  of  language  forms  do  not  form  a  closed  system,  i.e.  are  not  artificially  constructed.  Instead  they  arose   from  some  sort  of  a  need  (psychological,  social,  cultural)  or  to  serve  a   function.   o For  example:  use  of  honorifics  when  greeting  boss/prof  vs.  friends     found  throughout  the  world.   • Therefore,  Language  mirrors  social  phenomena   o Lang.  is  not  just  a  personal  possessi on  but  a  social  tool  +  weapon.     LANGUAGE  AND  SOCIETY   Social  Gender   • Men  and  women  speak  differently,  use  different  forms  of  language     socially  important   o Example:  Vocab  diff  in  Japanese,  Koasati,  Language  in  Island  of  Carib   • These  are  examples  of  social  mark ers/signs  of  gender  role    represent  some  socially  significant  phenomena   • Markers  are  not  limited  to  vocab,  also  verb  endings!  Think  Hindi  :P   • Visible  gender  differences  in  English  as  well   o Cheris  Kramer  (1974)  70’s1  study    identify  women  vs.  men  speech    Found  that  women  use  softer  tone,   ↓  profanities,  ↑  tag  questions   o Danesi  study    adults  visit  sex  club  and  describe  experience    Men/Women  described  exp.  differently  (think  of  the  regular  stereotypes)   Social  Class   • Another  area  mirrored  +  encoded  by  language   • William  Labov  1966  Classic  study:   o Recorded  conversation  of  NYC  residents   –  found  diff.  in  pronunciation  of  /r/   o Originally,  /r/-­‐less  pronunciation  =  prestigious,  after  WW1,  this  switched   o Observed  pronunciation  of  /r/  at  Saks,  Macys,  S.Klein     “fourth  floor”    most  prestigious  (pronounced  /r/)   to  least  (/r/-­‐less  @  S.Klein)   o Shows  that  workers  identified  w/  prestige  of  employer  +  customers     was  mirrored  in  pronunciation  of  /r/   • Follow  up  1972  study   o Showed  that  people  of  all  classes  vary   pronunciation  depending  on  formality  of  speech  event   o Principle  of  Sociolinguistic  Competence :  The  more  formal,  the  more  aware  speakers  are  of  formality,  &   more  the  pronunciation  goes  up  in  social  value.   o Method  used  by  Labov  to  collect  data  =  now  standard,  consist      five  techniques: 1. Casual  speech  (conv.  w/  fam)   2. Careful  speech  (speech  in  interview)   3. Reading  speech  (read  a  story)   4. Word  Lists   5. Minimal  Pairs  (sauce/source,  pin/bin  etc)   • John  Fischer  (1958)  showed  that  pronunciation  correlated  w/  gender,  social  class,  personality  +  mood  of  spea ker.   o Interviewed  group  of  school  children  –  used  /-­‐ing/  OR  /-­‐in/  (reading  vs.  readin’)   o Girls  from  above  avg  income  household  w/  assertive/dom.  personality  and  if  stressed  children  tended  to   switch  from  the  usual  /-­‐in/  to  /-­‐ing/   o As  interview  progressed  =  mo re  relaxed  =  switch  back  to  /-­‐in/    shows  atmosphere  +  mood  play  significant   role  in  speech   • Therefore,  Labov  +  Fischer  studies  conclude  that  speakers  of  language  are  sensitive  to  both:   context  in  which   language  is  used  and  its  specific  variants.   Personality  and  Language   • James  Pennebaker  (2011)  book   o Found  politicians  tend  to  use  “I”  a  lot  to  personalize  msg  in  order  to  convey  commitment  to  cause   o Obama  =  least  “I”  user  since  Truman.  Shows  confidence  +  self  assurance   o Functor  words  (pronouns/articles)  reveal  mo re  about  personality  than  content  words  (noun/adj.)      Functor  words  have  “under  the  radar”  quality     leading  to  traces  of  social  identity   o Started  researching  b/w  language  form  +  personality  by  reading  diaries  of  subjects  w/  trauma/depression    Discovered  pronouns  were  indicators  of  personal  health.  Trauma  recovery  requires  “perspective   switching”  that  pronouns  facilitate.      Today  FB/Twitter  =  sample  size  diaries   o Pennebaker  also  found  that  use  of  functor  words  correlates  w/  age/gender/class   differences    Young,  women,  people  from  lower  class  =  use  more  pronouns  +  auxiliary  verbs  (lacking  power   requires  profound  engagement  w/  others  thoughts)    Does  not  explain  why  functor  words  =  found  more  in  some  groups,  need  more  empirical  testing   • Everyone  DOES  have  a  “personal  la nguage  style”    idiolect.     o Individuals  manner  of  speaking  that  identifies  him/her  instantly     manner  of  speaking,  tone,  pronunciation,   choice  of  vocab/sentences  used  etc.   Styles  and  Registers   • Pennebaker’s  study  misses  that  the  use  of  pronouns  is  directly  r elated  to  styles  +  registers.     o Ex:    use  of  “I”  might  relate  to  lifestyle/profession   o Scientists/academics  use  more  passive  sentences,  reduces  need  for  pronouns   • Registers:  Ways  of  speaking/writing  designed  to  match:  1)  formality  of  situation  2)  medium  used  (speaking  vs.   writing)  3)  Nature  of  topic  involved  in  the  speech  act.   o For  ex:  use  of  goodbye  (highly  formal,  midformal,  informal)     varies  with  situation  and  context,  i.e.   “goodbye”  with  prof,  “see  ya”  with  friend    Misuse  of  form  =  breach  of  etiquette  or  sig n  of  anomalous  communication.    Ex:  Javanese  society  =  different  registers  of  speech   for  different  social  classes  (farmers/townsfolk)   • We  instantly  recognize  registers  as  formal  vs.  informal  (ex:  buck  vs.  dollar)  due      ecific  linguistic  forms o Phonological,  lexical,  grammatical   o Clipped/abbreviated  =  usually  informal   • Linguist  Martin  Joos  (1967)    book  called  “Five  clocks  of  English”   o Argued  that  we  all  unconsciously  use  social  registers  at  diff.  times  of  the  day   o Think  about  how  we  speak  in  the  morn,  @  work,  w ith  a  lover,  with  a  superior    shows  registers  are  synced   with  daily  life  routines   o Leeway  in  grammatical/lexical  context,  nonetheless  constrained  by  situation,  social  rules,  registers    Ex:  conveying  anger:  “Don’t  say  that  idiot!”  vs.  “It  is  best  that  you  no t  say  that!”    First  ex  can  be  between  two  people  who  are  =  more  formal.  Shows  how  choice  is   constrained  by  situation  +  social  factors.   • Style:  way  of  using  language  that  shows  sensitivity  to/understanding  of  specific  situations/levels  of  formal ity.   o For  ex:  Active  vs.  Passive  sentences  (Jeannie  +  apple/  NaCl  example)    Active  =  emphasizes  speaker  in  direct  relation  w/    the  goal      Passive  =  deemphasizes  speaker  (as  actor),  emphasizes  object  (goal)     science  requires   “objectivity”     • There  is  more  to  style/registers  but  these  ex  reveal  how  words  are  selected  +  put  together  to  convey  a  certain  “feel”   to  msgs  causing  people  to  interpret  them  a  certain  way   • Linguistic  styles  influence  how  we  judge  people   • Registers  +  styles  are  connect  w/  class,  job,  lifestyl e  and  other  social  variables.     THE  MARKEDNESS  THEORY   • In  languages  with  grammatical  gender,  gender  system  often  mirrors  perception  of  social  gender  roles.   o Ex:  English  language  –  word  for  human  being  was  man.     o In  old  English,  man  meant  human  being/person,   wer  =  adult  male,  wif  =  adult  female  (werman,  wifman)   o This  evolved:  wifman  =  woman,  wif  =  wife,  and  man  replaced  1)   wer  &  werman  2)  continued  to  be  used  to   describe  human  beings  in  general.   o This  rendered  females  invisible.     o Confirmed  by  Doyle  1985    mental  image  when  man/he  is  used  for  generic  form  of  ref.   o Efforts  to  change  this  in  the  last  decade,  however  subtle  marked  perceptions  remain.   • Markedness:  Differences  in  social  roles  =  marked  by  differences  in  vocab/grammar   • Initially,  the  theory  of  markedness  applied  to  identifiy  language  forms  that  were  common/neutral  vs.  forms  that   were  distinct/‘marked’.   o Example:  English,  /an/  =  marked  vs.  /a/  =  unmarked     since  it  is  the  most  typical  representation  of  a  class   system  whereas  /an/  =  conditional/exceptional  member   • When  markedness  features  occur  in  area  of  grammatical  gender,  social  implic  ns  emerge o Ex:  Italian:  masculine  plural  =  unmarked,  applies  to  everyone  vs.  feminine  plural  =  marked,  only  applies  to  F.   o The  unmarked  form  as  masculine  =  cue  that  Italian  socie ty  was  historically  patrilineal  society     has  changed   but  residues  remain  in  the  markedness  structure   o In  societies/communities  where  unmarked  form  is  masculine,  certain  types  of  social  processes  typically   depend  on  men.  (King)  vs.  opposite  is  true  when  feminine    =  unmarked    Iroquois  (alpher)   • Close  relation  between  language  &  social  structures     when  change  occurs,  both  change   o EX:  Job  Designations.  Last  60yrs,  females  entering  male  dom.  jobs     waiter  vs.  waitress.  Waiter  now   encompasses  both  genders.  Waitre ss  is  used  only  to  explicitly  refer  to  the  gender  of  the  waiter.   o EX  2:  Feminine  titles:  Mrs.  =  marked  form,  represents  married  lady,  hence  introduction  of  “Miss”/Ms.    Ms.  is  to  females  as  Mr.  is  to  males.     NAMING  PEOPLE   • Name  giving  =  most  basic  function  of   language   • A  name  transforms  H.B.  into  a  person     gives  identity   • Study  of  names  falls  under  branch  of  ling.  called   onomastics.   • Baby  not  considered  a  full  member  of  society  until  he/she  is  given  a  name   o Naming  =  first  rite  of  passage  in  society.  If  you  don’t  g ive  a  name,  society  will!   • When  a  person  is  taken  into  a  family  by  marriage/adoption     assigned  fam.  Name   o Inuit:  need  name,  body,  soul  to  be  complete,  aboriginals  have  birth  name,  fam  name,    adult  name.   • Western  culture       name  giving  is  largely  unregulated   but  shaped  by  several  customs/trends   o Most  common  names  come  from  Hebrew,  Greek,  Latin,  Teutonic  languages.   o John,  Mary,  Michael,  David,  Elizabeth,  James,  Joseph  etc..     o Teutonic  names  =  two  elements  joined  together  (Willam  =  wille  +  helm)   • Name  giving  can  be  tied  to  circmstances  of  birth    time,  birth  order,  parents  emotianl  rxn   o Yoruba    names  of
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