Textbook Notes (368,150)
Canada (161,680)
Anthropology (246)
ANT253H1 (58)
Chapter 2

Notes chapter 2 test review.docx

10 Pages
190 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT253H1
Professor
Marcel Danesi
Semester
Fall

Description
Each Language is equal among equals - No matter how many sounds a language possesses or how large its vocabulary is – it shares it fundamental structures with other languages To study the science of linguistic, errors were introduced in a sentence in various spots - Allows us to detect what has gone wrong – what rules were broken? - E.g. pboy- the violated principle is not a selection of individual sounds (pen or ball) but combinations of sounds – falls under the domain of phonology - E.g. an boy- not a phonological error because an in isolation is a legit word o Morphology- not only how words are distributed among a larger scale but also how units smaller than words called morphemes (affixes, s in the end for plural, etc) convey meaning o Languages can be classified depending on the number of morphemes they use  Chinese- one word = one morpheme  German- one word= several morphemes  English- one word= a lot of morphemes (equivalent to an English sentence) - Syntax- in Latin- the order of the word doesn‟t matter(they use case endings); in English it does - Drinking pizza –Semantic- meaning patterns- goes against the real world experience - Johnny being a girl- pragmatic- variations according to the context in which the language is used Thus linguistic analysis involves examining language forms as structures that belong to specific levels. Difference between form and structure - A triangle can have various forms – acute, obtuse, etc but only one structure (three lines) o Thus that structure can belong to different levels – forms - Similarly in language structures are patterns that can take on various forms Phonology - The symbols commonly used to represent sounds = international phonetic alphabet (IPA) - IPA was established for consistency because the world‟s spelling system vary so widely and are often unreliable o Fish , philosophy and enough have the same phonetic sound but spelled different  This sound is produced physically by: 1. The lower lip touching the upper teeth- labiodental 2. The airstream starting from the lungs is expelled in a constricted fashion through the slit formed in lower lip touching upper teeth – fricative 3. The vocal cords in the larynx are kept taut(t non-vibrating)- voiceless  Thus this phonetic symbol F stands for a voiceless labiodental fricative 2. The airstream expelled by the lungs can pass through the oral or nasal cavity o In general only sounds produced by nasal cavity are specifically distinguished – otherwise most are oral 3. In larynx there are two vocal cords- which can either be vibrating or taut o If they are close together when air passes through them- they vibrate producing voiced sounds – e.g. zip (touch your larynx- you will feel the vibration) o If they are apart and stationary- they are voiceless - e.g. sip 1. Consonant vs. vowel sounds - Consonants- indicate the point of articulation and manner or articulation o Sounds made by two moveable organs touch – e.g. pill - bilabial o Sounds made by one moveable and one stationary organ = fish (bottom lip and upper teeth)- labiodental o Both usually consonant sounds because they are produced in some obstructed manner o No word for tongue in consonant description- e.g. in the word train, which is produced with the tongue touching the alveolar arch (ridge just above the train) = alveolar - Vowels- o Various parts of tongue may be named because tongue height and position are relevant in the description of the sounds o Bah – expelling the airstream through the oral cavity without any significant blockage or friction o Pill – blocking the airstream and then expelling it completely o Name – directing it through the nasal cavity o Live – Expelling it on either side of the tongue as it makes contact with the teeth, the alveolar arch or the palate o Fact- expelling it through constriction in the front of the mound o Can be described in terms of the position of the tongue  Vertical –high, mid, low  Horizontal- front, central, back o The quality of a vowel depends on whether the lips are rounded or unrounded, whether lips are together or open, or the tip of the tongue is flat or curled o In some languages, vowels can take on the quality of any nasal consonant that surrounds the word  In French a with an accent in gant is nasalized o English vowel system has 12 main sounds depending on the position of the tongue (front, centre, back high, back mid, back low- tongue can also be front high, mid and low as well but I think it‟s always low to high)- if more details are required on the sounds- IPA is consulted o New symbols used to represent various phonetic sounds - In general vowels are produced by allowing the airstream to pass through the mouth without significant blockage; consonants are produced modifying blockage (complete or partial) Consonants can be described again in terms of points and manner of articulation Points of articulation - Bilabial- produced when upper and lower lips are touching e.g. pill or bin - Labiodental- lower lip touching the upper teeth e.g. fish - Dental- tongue touching the upper teeth or with the upper and lower teeth close to each other but not quite touching e.g. toy - Interdental- tongue between the teeth –e.g. thing - Alveolar- tongue touching the gum ridge - e.g. train - Alveopalantal- tongue touching the palate e.g. jar - Velar- back of the tongue touching the soft palate – e.g. king - Uvular – produced at or near the uvula – e.g. in German ich - Glottal- produced at or near the throat e.g. house Manner of articulation - Plosive/ occlusive/ stop – produced by means of complete stoppage of the airstream e.g. pull - Fricative (some phoneticians favour the sibilant) – constriction of the air stream e.g. sun, fish - Affricate- combination of plosive and fricative articulations- e.g. cats of fads - Flaps- flapping the action of the tongue- called vibrant – e.g. arrivederci (Italian- rr) - Lateral – narrowing of the tongue as the airstream escapes from the sides of the tongue- e.g. love - Nasal- directing the airstream through the nasal package- e.g. mom, nine - Flaps and lateral = classified together as liquids Voiced vs. voiceless for both consonants and vowels- - Nasal, flaps and lateral = voiced – as are the vowels in those words Certain phones can take on slightly different articulations in certain positions within words. For example, when voiceless bilabial plosive such as P is aspirated – pronounced with a slight puff h of air, it is represented as P . It usually occurs when followed by a vowel. - E.g. spit vs. pit; spunk vs. punk (Here, s is put before p blocking the aspiration even if it‟s followed by a vowel). Phoneme - /P/ - minimal unit of sound that can distinguish the meaning of words - /p/ can replace other consonant such as /w/ or /b/ to make new words –bin or win Allophones h - The pronunciation of /P/ as either unaspirated [P] or aspirated [P ] - Its due to the fact that the articulation of a sound is conditioned by its position within words - Allophones of a phoneme complement each other – where one occurs the other one doesn‟t. - The way that allophones complement each other is called complementary distribution rule Commutation test - Common test to identify phonemes of a language - Consists of sounds in minimal pairs- two words made up of same sounds except one position. E.g. sip vs. zip; sing vs. ring - If the test produces a difference in meaning – two sounds are phonemic - The proportional symbol used to indicate complementary- i.e. “is commutated with” - It doesn‟t just have to vary the letter- also the sound- e.g. beet is commutated with bet - However pronouncing economics with an I sound or E sound is called free variation not phonemes Distinctive feature analysis - Technique referring to minimal sound differences - The difference between two allophones of /p/ involved the feature aspirated - The presence of aspirated in [P ] is symbolized as [+ aspirated] and its absence in[P] is symbolized as [- aspirated] - [+/- aspirated] = distinctive feature that keeps two allophones distinct Consonants and vowel phonemes cluster in predictable way – syllabus - Defined in terms of breath groups because they allow the speakers to take a breath if required - A syllable is formed by a vowel called nucleus pronounced with a certain degree of stress o If it‟s the main stress in the word = primary; otherwise secondary or tertiary - The diacritic used to identify primary stress = [„] placed on a vowel segment o E.g. meter with an accent on the first e - The sounds after a nucleus are called contours - If another unstressed vowel comes before or after the nucleus, it‟s called a glide and the syllable is called a diphthong o E.g. yesterday  Moves from the glide [y] to the vowel [e]  Rising diphthong because voice is raised o If the glide is after the vowel nucleus e.g. y in say  Falling diphthong Phonologists also study sentence stress patterns because these affect the meaning encoded. - In English, main stress is usually on the last word; but you can change it to alter the meaning - E.g. Sarah is Italian (stress could be on Sarah or Italian) Another aspect of pronunciation is tone - It‟s the relative pitch with which a syllable, word or sentence is pronounced - In mandarin- it‟s an important feature because a single syllable [ma] can have various meanings depending on whether the tone is one of the following: o High level tone of [ma] can mean mother o High rising- hemp o Rising= horse o Falling = scold - In a Nigerian language, tone can mark a grammatical function o High-low – I am showing o Low-high- I showed o Low- I show - In English- tone is used to signal differences in the intent or function of sentences- the use of tone is more specifically known as innotation o Sentences and interrogative questions have a falling intonation pattern  E.g. Marie is French  Where do you live o Yes or no questions and questions with isn‟t he, doesn‟t he have a rising intonation pattern  Do you speak Italian?  You know her, don‟t you? - Raising or lowering tone can change the meaning of the words as well. E.g: o Yes? = can I help you o Yes – level tone = affirmation o Yes! = satisfaction Three general things to note so far about the relation between pronunciation and language use: 1. Actual pronunciation can vary from speaker to speaker a. Dialectal- when people in two different places speak English differently- slightly different pronunciation b. Sociolectal  When man and women or different classes of societies are expected to pronounce
More Less

Related notes for ANT253H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit