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Chapter 2

Chapter Two Summary.docx

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Shawn Lehman

Chapter Two – Primate Classification  Classification – the arrangement or organization of phenomena into categories  Taxonomy – rationale or methodology used to classify; in biology is based on similarities and differences  Phylogeny – the evolutionary lineage of a group of related organisms  Superclass, class, subclass, infraclass...  Evolutionary systematics – an approach to the science of classification that is based on evaluation the degree of distance or closeness reflected by a suite of morphological characteristics exhibited by different groups of animals (cladistics)  Phylogenetic classification – the science of classification that involves a systematic examination of specific traits within organisms in order to place them within a branching pattern that illustrates their relatedness  Analogous traits – traits that serve the same function but are not the result of common ancestor  Speciation concepts: biological, evolutionary, phylogenetic, ecological, recognition, cohesion  Sympatric – Populations share the same living space  Allopatric – populations show no overlap in living space  Reproductive isolation mechanisms: behaviour, morphological, physiological, geographical, ecological  Hybrid zone – is where two genetically distinct but closely related taxa meet, interbreed, and produce offspring  Anagenesis – new species that appears through a gradual change over time within a lineage  Cladogenesis – one or more species arises from a previous species o Cumulative effects of genetic drift and natural selection  Parapatric speciation – occurs when species is widely distributed and a segment of the population is better able to deal with certain environmental conditions  Allopatric speciation – speciation due a the barrier and separation (physical)  Sympatric speciation – barriers arising between members of the same population in a continuously distributed species Strepsirhine  Superfamily: Lemuroidea – All live on Madagascar 1. Family Cheirogaleidae  Dwarf lemurs, mouse lemurs, and fork-marked lemurs  All small bodied  Sleep in tree holes  Give birth to twins  Least social of lemurs  Solitary foragers 2. Family Daubentoniidae  Aye-aye  Large bushy tail  Eats mainly insects, sometimes eggs and fruits 3. Family Indriidae  Largest lemurs  Woolly lemur, sifaka, indri  Vertical clingers/leapers  Diurnal, leaf-eating monkeys  Woolly lemurs are nocturnal 4. Family Lemuridae – true lemurs  Ring-tailed, bamboo lemurs, ruffed lemurs  Medium sized  Cathemeral – active at dawn and dusk  Ruffed lemurs give birth to four infants – have four mammary glands  Females dominant 5. Family Lepilemuridae  Sportive lemurs  Arboreal and nocturnal  Solitary foragers  Superfamily Lorisoidea  Single family: Lorisidae 1. Subfamily Galaginae  Africa  Galagos  Long thick tails and ears  Nocturnal  Very active  Vertical clingers/leapers 2. Perodicitinae  African potto and angwatibo  Nocturnal  Potto eats mainly fruit  Angwatibo eats mainly insect
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