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Chapter 1

JAV131H1 Chapter 1: Frampton Reading- jav 131

Architecture Studies
Course Code
Hans Ibelings

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International modernism and national identity: 1919-1939
-Socialist culture and industrial norm: The Weimar Republic 1923-31
Modern arch. Played role in process of societal modernization
After first war Germany, Holland, Czechoslovakia and Sweden modern movement
received by authorities and became vehicle for furthering the welfare state policies
o aggregations of flat-roofed, white rendered houses came to adopted as housing
of postwar era
Perimeter block type of housing row-house system built in Germany during
Weimar period form of inner development
o Economy of repetition and provision of optimum sunlight and ventilation to
every room
Otto Haeslers Italieisher Garte uilt i Celle, Hannover (1923)
o Established the basic pattern of Weimar republics system
o Blocks built to new standards of hygiene and convenience
o Individual bathrooms considered to be more than what the society could afford
Comparison between Georgsgarten and Friedrich Ebert-Ring two different stages in
application and development of typical row house model
o Units in latter equipped with standard bathrooms and kitchens
o Uninterrupted row-house site plan at Rathenow represented major point of
Georgsgarten risis housig – devoted to home grown produce
Friedrich Ebert-Ring different types of anxiety:
o One concerned with symbolic rep. of community
o Terrace housing zig-zag boundary connecting nursery school and playground
with public park
Bounding tech. applied by Fred Forbat in Haselhorst development (1928)
Those who regarded last minute manipulation as being incapable of defining physical
identity of community
o Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner Berlin-Britz development (1925)
Horseshoe-shaped segment of housing
Haesler created opened-ended layouts at Georgsgarten and Rathenow
Ernst May - appointed as city architect of Frankfurt in 1925
o Tempered by a feeling for tradition
o creation of bounded urban space
o first work Bruchfeldstrasse development (1925) considered large courtyard of
zigzag housing
o created 90% of housing during this period
objective approach led to formulation of Exitenzminimum standards
o contentious theme of second CIAM Frankfurt Congress of 1929
o contrasted Le Corusier eistee-aiu
o minimum standards dependent on built in storage and development of
Frankfurter Küche
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o world depression cost made May introduce prefabricated concrete
construction used after 1927 to construct both Prunheim and Hohenblick
Walter Gropius
o Törten housing (1926-28) reps definitive stage in own conversion to materialist
planning standards linear process of its prefabricated assembly
o Second half of 20th abandon earlier formal approach to organization of Arch
form still evident in Dessau Bauhaus building (1926)
o Gropius views as to reformation of legal and social infrastructure of society
moved to Social Democratic position
o Wrote an essay to response to general urban chaos of capitalism govt. should
prepare ground for master-household
First by preventing waste of public funds for apartments of excessive size
Second reducing cost of roads and utilities
Never to realize a prototypical masterhold
-From Perimeter Block to Open City: Holland 1915-39
Holland was able to sustain housing policy after the First War from passing of Woninwet
legislation of 1901
Greatly impacted two cities
o Numerous Arch. Made contribution to Hedrik Petrus Berlages 5 pla for
Amsterdam South
o Garden city - Achieved by Michiel Brinkman and J.J.P. Oud in Rotterdam
Oud. Stam and Van Tijen began Weimar row-house pattern as new prototypical form
Most adae perieter lok postar era as Mihiel Brikas doule-decked,
four-storey scheme in Spangen, Rotterdam (1920)
o Cit i iiature
Ouds eight lok deelopet ko as Tusshedijke (-23)
o Perimeter urbanism in Rotterdam
Second half of 20ths abandonment of continuous urban fabric for free-standing blocks
and slabs
o First forulatio of ope it patter ae fro Mart “tas 1926 proposal for
Rokin district of Amsterdam
Subvert existing city by introducing continuous elevated office block into
middle of traditional thoroughfare
o Arch. Pursued functional form of expression influenced by constructivist
movement in Russia - never true case for Stam
Opbouw members like Brinkman and Van der Vlugt and main client Cess van der Leeuw
sought to transcend functionalism through concern for universal values
o Members of the Dutch theosophical society
o Built a functionalist retreat at Ommen for Krishnamurti and his followers
Period culminated in two reinforced concrete and glass structures constructivist
-Modernization and Machine Form: Czechoslovakia 1918-35
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