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Chapter 4

JAV132H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Ellipse, Winter Palace


Department
Architecture Studies
Course Code
JAV132H1
Professor
Hans Ibelings
Chapter
4

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4 - St. Petersburg
Russian Architecture and the West The European Century - Dmitry Shvidkovsky
-Neoclassicism, the Russian style and Eclecticism
· 19th century is called “the European century” – P.291
· Russian architecture of Enlightenment period was based on French mid-eighteenth-century
Classicism
· First half of 19th century
o Utopian for France in 1780s was realized by Russia
o Also followed fashion in Paris and London
· Neoclassicism gave building/urban plans power in imperial Russia of Alexander I and Nicholas I
· Variety of park architecture in Russia Picturesque parks spread after Napoleonic wars signs of
Gothic in English style - p.292
· Architecture in English, French and Russian national originality
· Beginning of 19th cen English/French/Russia strong attraction to medieval arch.
o France/England - wanted new style to replace Classical admired its universality,
organic, and naturalness
o Russia wanted expressing political and religious originality
· Russian architects were getting information on foreign tech. and arch.
· Important contribution in Russia education focused on world arch.
o Received state funding to travel to several countries for architectural culture
o Many citizens were travelling abroad in groups
· Private clients were important during WW1 as it created links between the world until the Oct.
Revolution
- The “Rome Prize” Style in St. Petersburg in the Reign of Alexander I
· Alexander I occupied five of the nine decades where Neoclassicism was predominant
p.296
o Continued the reforms of Catherine the Great grandma
o State finances improved, trade, and contact with Western Europe increased
· Went against revolutionary France, but found peace in Russian border
o War/peace made no difference in culture
· First years of new cen. French Neoclassicism dominated arch in St. Petersburg and
Moscow but later moved away from French influence
· Alexander made Charles Cameron chief arch. Of Admiralty
· The Exchange, Jean-Freancois Thomas de Thomon 1804 St. P p. 297
o massive temple-like building surrounded by Doric colonnade
o imitating ancient Greek temples
o Roman arches. Doorways and vaulted ceiling were present
· Giacomo Quarenghi’s most important building – Horse Guards’ Riding School – on
Senate Square p.298
· Andrey Voronikhin important arch. During Alexander I stylistically formed in tradition
· Admiralty used order and decorative 1806 appointed as chief arch. For all naval
building in St. Petersburg
o Themes of sculptural ornamentation
o Admiralty established by Peter the Great as fortified shipyard became main part of
the city on the left bank of the Neva p. 299
o Trident of the city oriented based on Admiralty tower/gilded spire
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