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Chapter 14

FAH272 Chapter 14 Notes (19th century developments)

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Dr.Sharon Vattay

th1 Chapter 14 19 century developmentsy Freedoms introduced by NeoClassicism and Romanticism encouraged revivals of other historical styles such as Gothic Greek Islamic Egyptian Byzantine and early Christian along with inventive new creations such as the Chinoiserie Japonais Moorish and Hindoo styles yIn many cases styles were chosen because of their associationsy Ex Egyptian style was proposed for buildings related to mediciney Progress in materials science enabled architects and engineers to tackle construction problems in fundamentally new ways contributing further to diversity observable in th19 century worky Buildings in Britain and US now termed Victorian often have little in common with one another other than fact that they were built during long reign of Queen Victoria 18371901 Karl Friedrich Schinkel y Born in a town in Brandenburg Germany 17811841 y Relied heavily on the elements of Greek architecture y Joined Prussian public works office at conclusion of Napoleonic Wars at a time when Prussia was seeking to raise its stature to that of a major European state with Berlin as its capital y Prussiaformer kingdom of Germanyy Neue Wacheo Also known as Royal Guard Houseo Located on Berlins most important ceremonial street 1817 o It celebrated the emerging power of Prussia under King Friedrich Wilhelm 3 o Has a Doric portico between heavy pylons detailed with such severity that makes the building achieve monumentality despite its modest size y Schauspielhauso Prussian national theater located in Berlin originally designed by Carl Gotthard Langhans but burnt down in the summer of 1817 o Schinkel had redesigned it by 1818 to sit atop the old foundationso Entire structure is raised on a high base and dominated by an Ionic portico with receding masses to either side articulated by plain pilastersy Altes Museum o Also known as Old Museum o Located in Berlin 1823 o Schinkels most famous structure o First public art museum in Europe at the time o The faade is a giant Ionic colonnade raised on a high base and stretching full width of the building o Central rotunda flanked by open courtso Is like the Pantheon caught between 2 temples both fronted by a stoa th2 Chapter 14 19 century developmentsSir John Soane y Leading exponent of NeoClassicism in England y 17531837 y His work also has romantic qualitiesy Bank of Englando This building complex in London used daylight in imaginative ways since bank security required absolutely blank exterior walls o Built in 1788 but now destroyed except for its perimeter wallso Decoration was incised into the stone rather than sculpted out of it Benjamin Henry Latrobe y 17661820 y Born in England and educated there and in Europe y Practiced as an architect and engineer in and around London before emigrating to the US to become the countrys first professional architect y In 1803 Thomas Jefferson commissioned Latrobe to work on the US Capitoly Latrobe completed both the north and south wings of the US Capitol introducing his own designs for American orderstobaccoleaf capitals and corncob capitals y Latrobe also used capitals based on those of the archaic Greek temples at Paestum in the Supreme Court Chamber y Designed the Bank of Pennsylvania 1799 combining Greek Ionic porticoes front and back and a central dome with oculus that covered the monumental banking space Thomas Jefferson y 17431826 y Roman Revivalist rdy Also penned the Declaration of Independence and served as the countrys 3 president y In 1785 Jefferson was asked to propose a design for the State Capitol of Virginiay Monitcello 1770 o Designed his own and used it almost an architectural laboratory o Crowned by an octagonal domeo Placed the service functions kitchens storage etc below the grade of the lawn so they remained close at hand yet out of sighty Designed the campus of University of Virginia at Charlottesville 181726The Gothic Revival Augustis Welby Northmore Pugin y 18121852 y In England was the leading Gothic Revivalist
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