NOTES 1900-1909 12/6/2012 10:42:00 AM
-1900a Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams: in
Vienna, the rise of the expressive art of Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, and
Oskar Kokoschka coincides with the emergence of psychoanalysis.
-1900b Henri Matisse visits Auguste Rodin in his Paris studio but rejects
the elder artists sculpture style.
-1903 Paul Gauguin dies in the Marquesas Islands in the South Pacific:
the recourse to tribal art and primitivist fantasies in Gauguin influences the
early work of Andre Derain, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Ernst Ludwig
-1906 Paul Cezanne dies at Aix-en-Provence in southern France: following
the retrospectives of Vincent Van Gogh and Georges Seurat the preceding
year, Cezanne’s death casts Postimpressionism as the historical past, with
Fauvism as its heir.
-1907 With the stylistic Inconsistencies and primitivist impulses of Les
Demoiselles de Avignon, Pablo Picasso launches the most formidable attack
ever on mimetic representation
-1908 Wilhelm Worringer publishes Abstraction and Empathy, which
contrasts abstract art with representational art as a withdrawal from the
world versus an engagement with it: German Expressionism and English
Vorticism elaborate this psychological polarity in distinctive ways.
-1909 F.T Marinetti publishes the first Futurist manifesto on the from
page of Le Figaro in Paris: for the first time the avant-garde associates itself
with media culture and positions itself in defiance of history and tradition
Joseph Maria Olbrich, House of the Vienna Secession, 1898
-view from main entrance
Four Viennese contemporaries: Sigmund Freud, Gustav Klimt, Egon
Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka
Their paintings place the viewer in the position of Psychoanalytic
interpreter and are connected through the notion of the “dreamwork”
developed by Freud in The interpretation of Dreams.
Dream= A rebus, a broken narrative-in-images, a secret wish struggling
to be expressed and an internal censor struggling to suppress it. “Ornament was to such a house what the signature is to a painting”-
German critic Walter Benjamin
Josef Hoffmann, Palais Stoclet, Brussels, 1905-11
dining room murals by Gustav Klimt, furniture by Josef Hoffman
Gustav Klimt- first president of the Vienna Secession. Father was an
engraver sent son to the School of Arts and Crafts, emerged as an
architectural decorator. 1894 after successfully painting the ceiling of the
City Theater and lobby of the Museum of Art History, the new University of
Vienna commissioned him to produce three ceiling paintings—representing
Philosophy, Medicine, and Jurisprudence, on the Enlightenment theme
of the “Triumph of Light over Darkness.” Finished all three in 10 years the
first one on Philosophy 1900 he presented an anguish passage of
commingled bodies through an amorphous space overseen by an obscure
sphinx in the center and a luminous head (which evoked Medusa more than
Athena) at the bottom Darkness triumphing over Light.
He questioned rationalist philosophy.
Mocked therapeutic medicine in 1901 represented with more bodies,
some slung in sensuous slumber, others massed with cadavers and
skeletons—a grotesque phantasmagoria of “the unity of life and death, the
interpretation of instinctual vitality and personal dissolution”-painting
Gustav Klimt, Jurisprudence ,1903-07
three large intense furies around an emaciated man all naked in a dark
space below, and three small, impassive graces gowned in a hieratic space
Allegorical figures of Truth, Justice and Law hardly assist the male victim
surrounded by octopus tentacles is at the mercy of 3 furies of punishment (1
sleeps obliviously, one stares vengefully, 1winks as if on the take).
Punishment appears psychologized as castration: the man is gaunt, his head
bowed, penis near maw of the octopus.
In a sense, it is him who Schiele + Kokoschka will attempt to liberate, but
will remain broken Klimt withdrew from avant-garde in order to paint realistic portraits of
stylish socialites, ornamental ppl set against ornamental backgrounds.
Klimt mentored Schiele met in 1907.
Schiele died in the Spanish Flu epidemic of 1918.
Notorious for drawings of adolescent girls, often sexually expose, and self
portraits sometimes in similar explicit positions
Egon Schiele, Nude Self-Portrait in Gray with Open Mouth, 1910
Gouache and black crayon on paper
figure recalls the emaciated victim of jurisprudence turned around and made
He is broken free, yet free, he is broken, his arms are no longer bound
instead they are amputated, scarecrow pinioned and cut at the knees.
Penis is retracted, torso more feminine than not.
Rings around his eyes face resembles a death-mask.
Open mouth interpreted either as a vital scream or a deathly gaping.
Captures moment when vitality and mortality meet in neurotic morbidly
Nazis condemned it as “degenerate” 30yrs later.
figure becomes cipher of sexual disturbance
Oscar Kokoschka, Portrait of the Architect Adolf Loos, 1909.
Adolf notorious 4 austere designs + fierce polemics
captured there partnership of opposites. Ringed eyes. Gazes inward,
composed, but one senses he is under great pressure. Wrung hands
Loos deemed ornament not only erotic but excremental and said that
artists who worked with it were criminals or degenerates
Henri Matisse, The Serf, 1900-3 (1908 cast) Bronze
self-contained. Learned the art of sculpture though this piece and another.
Viewer not tempted to image in motion. Prominent belly. Hunched back,
tilted head, Sculpture asserts its autonomy as an object.
Matisse asked Auguste Rodin for feedback on his drawings who told him to
add more details but Matisse ignored him.
Sculpture marks first Serious engagement with Rodin’s art.
Direct answer to Rodin’s armless The Walking Man used same model (Bevilaqua) fav of Rodin’s almost same pose.
Matisse underlined both his debt to Rodin and their differences
Auguste Rodin, The walking Man, 1900 Bronze
feet anchored onto ground, illusion of bound energy. Figure ready to spring
Henri Matisse, Jeannette V, 1916 Bronze