assignmnet 8

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University of Toronto St. George
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Michael Reid

AST assignment 8Jupiter and Saturn have compositions that are fairly different from the compositions of Uranus and Neptune Jupiter and Saturn are made mostly of hydrogen and helium while Uranus and Neptune are primarily made of hydrogen compounds such as water H2O methane CH4 and ammonia NH3There is no obvious trend in the densities of the jovian planets We need to look deeper at the nature of these planets in order to understand their densities the densities of Uranus and Neptune are higher than those of Jupiter and Saturn because they have a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rockBecause Jupiter and Saturn have nearly identical composition Jupiters higher density indicates that its interior is more compressed than Saturns This greater compression is due to gravity which is stronger for Jupiter because of its greater mass Uranus and Neptune have a significantly different composition and higher density than Jupiter and Saturn because Jupiter and Saturn captured more gas from the solar nebula than Uranus and Neptune Accretion is thought to have occurred more rapidly in the denser regions of the solar nebula that were closer to the Sun Therefore although all four jovian planets captured hydrogen and helium gas from the solar nebula around similarmass planetesimals made of hydrogen compounds and rock Jupiter and Saturn had more time to capture this gas As a result Jupiter and Saturn accreted so much hydrogen and helium gas that these ingredients ended up dominating their composition In contrast Uranus and Neptune were left with compositions dominated by hydrogen compounds and rock which also led to their higher densities Io experiences tidal heating primarily because Ios elliptical orbit causes the tidal force on Io to vary as it orbits Jupiter The strength of the tidal force depends on Ios distance from Jupiter so the tidal force varies as Io moves around its elliptical orbit The tidal bulge even changes direction slightly because the orbital speed varies These tidal effects essentially s
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