assignment 10

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University of Toronto St. George
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Michael Reid

The force of gravity depends on the product of the object masses and the inverse square of the distance between them Keplers third law tells us that greater orbital distance must mean greater orbital periodThe largest distance has the weakest forceA larger Doppler shift means a larger velocity Larger Doppler shifts mean larger velocity The velocity wiggles up and down as the star orbits the center of mass of the star system The velocity is negative in the part of the orbit where the star is coming toward us and positive in the part of the orbit where the star is moving away from us The velocity is zero twice each orbit at the two points at which the stars motion is only across our line of sight The horizontal axis shows time for each curve and the time for one orbit the orbital period is the time between one peak and the next peak of the velocity curve a more massive planet exerts a larger force on its companion star and therefore causes it to orbit the center of mass with a greater velocityThe planets orbital period depends only on its orbital radius not the massit possible to determine the planets mass from the stars velocity curve by measuring both the stars orbital period and its change in velocity over the orbit Increasing the planets mass increases the strength of gravityAccording to Keplers third law a shorter orbital period means that the planet must be closer to its starHot Jupiters are jovian planets that are very close to their stars Their discovery came as a surprise to scientists because in our solar system jovian planets are only found far from the Sun We have no reason to think that there is anything particularly special about our Sun or solar system The agreement between computer models that predict migration and observations of hot Jupiters that have apparently migrated inward from their birthplaces is the reason that the migration h
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