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Chapter all: Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the Electrical Properties of Membranes

12 Pages
90 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO120H1

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Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the Electrical
Properties of Membranes
PRINCIPLES OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
- Lipid bilayers are naturally impermeable to ions. Small, hydrophobic or nonpolar
molecules can diffuse across a lipid bilayer.
- Membrane transport proteins are specialized in transporting solutes across cell
membranes. Each protein often transports only a specific molecular species or a class
of molecules (such as ions, sugars, or amino acids). Transporters and channels are
the two major classes of membrane transport proteins.
- Transporters (also called carriers or permeases) bind the solute to be transported and
undergo conformational changes to transfer the solute across the membrane.
- Channels interact weakly with the solute and form continuous pores that extend across
the lipid bilayer, which allow specific solutes to pass through them. Transport through
channels occurs at a much faster rate than transport mediated by transporters.
- Passive transport does not require energy and occurs in the direction of a
concentration gradient.
- Membrane potential is de difference between electrical potential on the two sides of
the membrane.
- The concentration gradient and the electrical gradient combine to form a net driving
force, the electrochemical gradient.
- Active transport occurs against an electrochemical gradient, thus requiring an energy
source such as ATP hydrolysis.
TRANSPORTERS AND ACTIVE MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
- Active transport can be done in three ways: coupled transport, ATP-driven and light or
redox-driven.

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Description
Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the Electrical Properties of Membranes PRINCIPLES OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORT Lipid bilayers are naturally impermeable to ionsmall, hydrophobic or nonpolar molecules can diffuse across a lipid bilayer. Membrane transport proteins are specialized in transporting solutes across cell membranes. Each protein often transports only a specific molecular species or a class of molecules (such as ions, sugars, or amino acids) . Transporters and channels are the two major classes of membrane transport proteins. Transporters (also called carriers or permeases) bind the solute to be transported and undergo conformational changes to transfer the solute across the membrane.
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