BIO120H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Even-Toed Ungulate, Macroevolution, Microevolution

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Why Evolution is True
Chapter 2 (pg 21-59)
fossils only made when remains of animals end up in water, sink to bottom,
and get covered by sediment so they don’t decay or get scattered by
scavengers
also: hard parts become infiltrated or replaced by dissolved minerals
over the first 80% of the history of life: all species were soft-bodied, so
no fossils
fossil record originally put in place by creationist geologists
principle of superposition
length of day increases by 2 seconds every 100,000 years
number of days per year decreasing over time as well (duration of year
remains constant)
transitional forms: fossils that span the gap between 2 very different kinds of
living organisms
look for forms intermediate between each species & a common but
unknown progenitor
progenitor will generally have differed in some respects from all of its
modified descendants
microevolution: minor changes in size and shape over time
macroevolution: idea that 1 very different kind of animal or plant can come
from another
ancient reptile, looked like a reptile: ancestor of reptiles & birds
transitional species=/= ancestral species
shows mixture of traits from organisms that lived before & after
theropods: agile, carnivorous, dinosaurs on 2 legs
mosaic: species with some traits similar to 1 descendant, most like another
trees down scenario: developed wings to get down from trees
ground up scenario: developed wings to get up
artiodactyls: mammals w even # of toes
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