BIO120H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter Lab 3: Sap, Leaf Miner, Herbivore

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27 Nov 2018
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BIO120: Adaptation and Biodiversity Lab Manual (Chapter 3 Plant
Animal Interactions)
In association with Lab 3 and Lab Quiz 2
- After reading this, you should be able to:
o Appreciate the importance of plant animal interactions to biodiversity
o Characterize plant animal interactions
o Differentiate plant tolerance from plant defense
o Define plant defenses and differentiate the various types of plant defenses
o Explain the costs and benefits of defenses to plants
o Describe the effects of plant defenses on herbivores
The Importance of Plant Animal Interactions
- Plants produce almost all of the energy available in terrestrial ecosystems
- Plants are an important energy source for the organisms; animals that feed on plants receive this
energy directly, whereas parasites and predators receive this energy indirectly
- Plants provide animals with habitat and/or shelter; plants play an important role in survival of
most animals
- Plants are incapable of displacement; other organisms are important for their reproduction and/or
protection importance of these interactions to survival and reproduction can lead to selection
for traits that facilitate interactions in both plants and animals; plant animal interactions can
lead to an array of adaptations, which can spur diversity of plants and animals
Types of Species Interactions
- Interactions between species characterized by relative costs or benefits to each species in the
interaction; species can benefit from interaction and interaction has a positive effect ; interaction
may be costly to a species and has a negative effect; species may receive no cost nor benefit from
an interaction or costs equal the benefits so there’s no effect
- There may be both costs and benefits to a species from an interaction, but it’s the net effect that
determines the nature of the interaction
- When interaction has a negative effect on both species, its characterized as competition usually
arises when both species require same resource; competition between plants and animals is rare
since they usually do not require same resources
- Mutualisms are interactions in which both species benefit
- Interaction that has positive effect on one species but a negative effect on other is a consumer
resource interaction consumer benefits and resource suffers a cost; relationship between
predator and prey, parasite and host, and herbivore and plant
Plant Herbivore Interactions
- Herbivorous species feed on plants in a variety of ways; most obvious is when organisms feed on
foliage
- Stem boring and leaf mining insects spend significant portion of their life feeding on plants that
they live inside of; other insects feed on plant sap by piercing plant tissue and sucking fluids;
other insects consume parts of flowers, eating petals or pollen
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