Inbreeding depression: sexual and asexual reproduction, clonal reproduction, genetic load, outbreeding, deleterious alleles, self and cross-fertilization. Inbreeding: modes of reproduction: asexual and sexual, outbreeding and inbreeding, evolution and adaptive significance of sex: models, environment heterogeneity, outbreeding mechanisms: inbreeding depression, plant sexual systems. Reproduction serves as a mechanism of regeneration or multiplication. Can provide a means of dispersal to new environments/ replacement of adult individuals in existing local environments. Genetic viewpoint- reproduction can provide means by which genetic material in population is recombined and shuffled to produce new combinations. Two major modes of reproduction occur in living organism: asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction: (often called cloning) involves replication of identical genetic entities. The results of asexual reproduction is the multiplication of identical genotypes. In asexual reproduction there is no alternation of haploid and diploid cells, no meiosis, no gametes. Instead, differentiated tissue simply undergoes a new cycle of developmental events.