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Chapter 1

BIO120H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Carl Linnaeus, Botany, Speciation


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO120H1
Professor
Jean Jiang Nash
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1: What is Evolution?
Living things are well designed (not perfect as observed later) to live
their lives.
Paley’s example of the watch and its parts.
oGod made perfect creations that make a perfectly synchronous
world.
1859: Darwin’s book/theory introduced.
Darwin NOT THE FIRST TO THINK OF EVOLUTION but first to
prove it with data.
Summary “Life on Earth evolved gradually beginning with one
primitive species—perhaps a self-replicating molecule—that
lived 3.5 billion years ago; it then branched out over time,
throwing off many new and diverse species; and the mechanism
of most but not all of evolutionary change is natural selection.”
oEvolution: species change due to change in DNA over millions
of years (starts as mutation). Theory can’t predict change, nor
the rate of change.
oGradualism: idea that change occurs over billions of
generations. Bacteria evolve fast due to short life span but
changes like reptiles to birds happen over many generations.
oSpeciation: Changes in genes so vast that two descendants’
groups can’t interbreed. Otherwise there would be only one
evolved species.
-each time one species splits into two, it doubles chances for
future speciation.
oCommon Ancestry: Common ancestors don’t look
dramatically different. Ex: ancestor of birds and dinosaurs
simply split to two descendant groups: one supporting flight and
other bipedal dinosaurs.
-Phylogenic trees grouped based on shared traits.
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