All living cells on earth store their hereditary information in dna. All cells replicate their hereditary information by templated polymerization: Templated polymerization is the way in which information is copied throughout the living world. Each nucleotide consists of two parts: a base (either a, c, t, or g), and a sugar with a phosphate attached to it. Each sugar is linked to the next via the phosphate group, creating a long polymer chain. For a single, isolated strand of dna, monomers can be added in any order because they all attach in the same way. Individual sugar-phosphate groups are asymmetric, giving the strand a polarity or directionality. Transcription: where segments of the dna sequence are used as templates for the synthesis of shorter molecules of the closely related polymer rna. In rna, the backbone is formed of ribose instead of deoxyribose.