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BIO270H1 Chapter Notes -Polyphenism, Allometry, Membrane Potential


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO270H1
Professor
Chris Garside

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
-animal physiology studies the structure and function of the various parts of an animal and
how these parts work together to allow animals to perform their natural behaviours and
respond to their environments
-much diversity due to the fact that there are more than a million different species of animal
on Earth
-although there is diversity, there are commonalities too:
all physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws
physiological processes are regulated to maintain internal conditions; homeostasis
homeostasis is maintained through feedback loops,
an animal’s phenotype arises as the product of its genotype
genotype is a product of evolutionary change in a group of organisms
A Brief History of Animal Physiology
-Galen was the first to use carefully designed experiments to probe the function of the body
-Ibn al-Nafis was the first to correctly describe the anatomy of the heart, the coronary
circulation, the structure of the lungs, the pulmonary circulation, and the relationship
between the lungs and the aeration of the blood
-Fernal outlined the current state of knowledge of human health and disease
-Vesalius’s was the author of the first modern anatomy textbook and demonstrated that
Galen was wrong
-Harvey identified the path of blood through the body and showed that contractions of the
heart power this movement
-two types of physiologists prior to the 18th century:
iatrochemists: believed that body function involved only chemical reactions
iatriophysicists: believed that only physical processes were involved
-Boerhaave and Haller proposed that bodily functions were a combination of both chemical
and physical processes
-milieu interieur: Bernanard postulated that living organisms preserve a distinct internal
environment despite changes in the outside environment
-central pattern generators: Ladd Prosser; groups of neurons coordinate many rhythmic
behaviours, including breathing and walking
Subdisciplines in Physiological Research
-most animal physiologists specializes in one or two subdisciplines of physiology
-three ways to categorize physiological subdisciplines: biological level or organization,
nature of the processes that causes physiological variation, and by the ultimate goals of
research
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BIOLOGICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION
CELL AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGIST
-study phenomena that occurs at the cellular
level
-might include researchers studying
molecular genetics, signal transduction,
metabolic biochemistry or membrane
biophysics
SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGIST
-study how cells and tissues interact to carry
out specific responsibilities within the whole
animal
ORGANISMAL PHYSIOLOGIST
-study the way an animal undertakes a
specific process or behaviour
-study things such as metabolic rate in
response to a stressor
-some specialize in particular groups of
animals; marine physiologists, avian
physiologists etc
ECOLOGICAL PHYSIOLOGIST
-study how the physiological properties of
an animal influence the distribution and
abundance of a species or population
-may study how the nutrient distribution in
the environment influences the growth rate
of an animal
-concerned with how an interesting
environment affects diverse animals
INTEGRATIVE PHSYIOLOGIST
-understand physiological processes at a
variety
of levels of biological organization and
across multiple physiological systems
-reductionism: we learn about a system by studying the function of its parts
-emergence: the whole is often more than the sum of its parts
-emergent properties of a system are due to the interactions of the component parts of the
system
GENERATES VARIATION
DEVELOPMENTAL PHYSIOLOGIST
-study how structures and functions change
as animals grow through the various life
stages
ENVIRONMENTAL PHSYIOLOGIST
-assess how animals mount physiological
responses to environmental challenges
-interested in the way an individual animal
changes its physiology in survive an
environmental challenge
EVOLUTIONARY PHYSIOLOGIST
-explain how specific physiological traits
arise within lineages over multiple
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