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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Online Textbook BIO120.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO120H1
Professor
James Thomson
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7 10/3/2013 8:52:00 PM Convergence  when unrelated organisms evolve similarly in response to similar environmental conditions CHAPTER CONCEPTS • Climate is the major determinant of plant growth form and distribution • Climate defines the boundaries of terrestrial biomes • Walter climate diagrams distinguish the major terrestrial biomes • Temperate climate zones have average annual temperatures between 5°C and 20°C • Boreal and polar climate zones have average temperatures below 5°C • Climate zones within tropical latitudes have average temperatures exceeding 20°C • The biome concept must be modified for freshwater aquatic systems • Marine aquatic systems are classified principally by water depth 7.1 Climate is the major determinant of plant growth form and distribution 7.2 Climate defines the boundaries of terrestrial biomes Climate zone.  A region in Heinrich Walter’s climate classification scheme, defined by the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation.  Whittaker’s biome diagram o Corresponds well with Walter’s 7.3 Walter climate diagrams distinguish the major terrestrial biomes  diagram illustrates seasonal periods of water shortage and abundance o shows comparisons of climates between localities 7.4 Temperate climate zones have average annual temperatures between 5°C and 20°C  temperate latitudes average temperature: 5˚- 20˚C o (between 30°N and 45°N in North America and Asia and between 40°N and 60°N in Europe) Growing season  The portion of the year during which conditions are suitable for plant growth; at temperate latitudes, defined by the frost-free season Temperate seasonal forest biome (climate zone VI)  Also known as deciduous  Not prominent in southern hemisphere because of larger ocean ratio to land surface, so prevents frost  Growing season between 130-180 days  Precipitation usually exceeds evaporation  Soil acidic, brown, moderately leached (lost its nutrients)  Deciduous trees most prominent  Where soils are nutrient poor/dry, have needle-leafed plants Temperate r
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