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BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Online Textbook BIO120 2013.docx

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James Thomson

Chapter 1 9/20/2013 8:54:00 AM 1.1 Ecological systems can be as small as individual organisms or as large as the biosphere  ecological system can be o organism  all have membranes that make it able to exchange material/energy with environment  transform energy and process materials o population o community o ecosystem  assemblage of organisms with physical/chemical environment o biosphere  link all ecosystems in world together 1.2 Ecologists study nature from several perspectives  organism approach o how an individual’s form help it to survive its environment o study why some organisms are limited to only some environments o adaptations of organisms  population approach o numbers of organisms o sex ratio o relative sizes of age classes o genetic makeup of population through time  community approach o diversity of organisms in one place + relative abundance o how they live together o interaction between populations o  ecosystem approach o the movement of energy (ex. Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, etc.) o how movements are affected by weather and physical factors  Biosphere approach o Movement of air/water + energy they carry around the earth  Ex. Ocean currents 1.3 Plants, animals, and microorganisms play different roles in ecological systems  early ecosystems mainly consisted of bacteria  3 billion years ago  were photosynthetic bacteria that produced oxygen  increase of oxygen concentrations permitted the evolution of more
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