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BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Online Textbook BIO120 2013.docx

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James Thomson

Chapter 4 10/5/2013 5:42:00 PM 4.0 Variation in the Environment: Climate, Water, and Soil Chapter Concepts • Global patterns in temperature and precipitation are established by solar radiation • Ocean currents redistribute heat • Latitudinal shifting of the sun’s zenith causes seasonal variation in climate • Temperature-induced changes in water density drive seasonal cycles in temperate lakes • Climate and weather undergo irregular and often unpredictable changes • Topographic features cause local variation in climate • Climate and the underlying bedrock interact to diversify soils 4.1 Global patterns in temperature and precipitation are established by solar radiation  the density of incoming photons is highest at the solar equator o where the light hits perpendicular to the earth’s surface  equator is tilted 23½° o northern hemisphere receives more light than southern hemisphere during northern summer Hadley circulation  Warming air expands, becomes less dense, and tends to rise  10–15 kilometers above the earth’s surface, it begins to spread to the north and south toward higher latitudes  rising tropical air mass cools 30˚ N and S of equator  becomes dense enough to fall back onto the earth’s surface Coriolis effect  The effect of the earth’s rotation on the circ
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