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BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 16

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Kenneth Bartlett

Chapter 16.0 Biodiversity  the numbers of species in most groups of organisms—plant, animal, and perhaps microbial—increase markedly toward the equator  diversity increases without limit over time, barring catastrophes such as meteorite impacts that cause mass extinctions of species.  Tropics older than rest so most diverse  Second theory says thatdiversity reaches an equilibrium, new specie, specie going instinct.  geographic factors also affect species richness.  the niche relationships of species provide an informative measure of community structure.  The more overlap the more species compete in niches  Species must be at carrying capacity (equilibrium) to be crowded and to coexist in same niche, if not it won’t be necessary.  Nonflying mammals are no more diverse at equator than temperate regions  Temperature difference so epiphytes go to tropic, and herbivorous insects go to tropics because more plant food  Morphology as a indicator of ecological role  Average niche greadth remains the same in communities with diff # of species  ecies diversity increases as a stream becomes larger and presents more kinds of habitats and a greater variety and abundance of food items.  diversity appears to be correlated with temperature, ecosystem productivity, topographic heterogeneity within a region, and the structural complexity of local habitats.  he production of new species by the splitting of evolving lineages  Species also disappear; indeed, most of the species that have ever existed are extinct Equilibrium theory of island biogeography.  The principle that the numb
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