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Biology (600)
BIO120H1 (305)


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Connie Soros

Look at diagram on pg 73 1. Radiography o X rays o Commonly used in dentistry, mammography, diagnosis of fractures and chest examination o Disadvantages - images of overlapping organs can be confusing, and slight differences in tissue density are not easily detected 2. Sonography o Technician slowly moves a small, handheld device across the body o Produces high frequency ultrasound waves, then receives signals that are reflected from internal organs o Image produced is a sonogram o Avoid harmful effects of x-rays o Inexpensive o Used to determine fetal age 3. Computed tomography (CT) o More sophisticated x-ray o Thin slices of images are collected and combined • Advantage that there is a little overlap of organs and the image is much sharper than those obtained by a conventional x-ray o Useful in identifying tumors, aneurysms, kidney stones, cerebral hemorrhages and other abnormalities 4. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) o Modified 3D x-ray technique used primarily to observe blood vessels o Involves taking radiographs before and after injection of opaque medium into the vessels • Computer compared before and after image leaving image that indicates evidence of vessel blockage 5. Dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR) o Modified CT scanner o Provides two importance pieces of medical information • 3D image of body organs • Information about an organ's normal movement as well as changes in its internal volume o Unlike traditional static CT scanner, DSR allows the physician to observe the movement of an organ o Valuable for inspecting the heart and the flow of blood through vessels 6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) o Non-invasive technique to visualize soft tissues o Uses electromagnets o Better than CT for distinguishing between soft tissue such as the white and grey matter of the nervous system o Dense structures (bones) don’t show up well o Patients feel claustrophobic 7. Positron emission tomography (PET) o Used to analyze metabolic state of a tissue at a given moment in time and to determine which tissue are most active o Inject radioactively labeled glucose which emits particles callused positrons o Gammas emitted and detected by computer o Result is colorful image which shows which tissues were using the most glucose at that moment o In cardiology can reveal the extent of damaged heart tissue o Example of nuclear medicine Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Epidermis of skin and Dermis of skin Epithelial lining of respiratory epidermal derivatives (hair, tract, GI tract, tympanic cavity, nails, sweat glands, auditory tube, urinary bladder and mammary lands) urethra Nervous tissue and sense Epithelial lining of blood Liver organs vessels, lymphatic vessels,Gallbladder body cavities, joint cavities Pancreas Thymus Tonsils Parathyroid glands Thyroid glands Pituitary gland Connective tissue Adrenal medulla (including connective Enamel of teeth tissue proper, bone, Lens of eye cartilage, blood) Adrenal cortex Dentin of teeth Heart Kidneys and ureters Internal reproductive organs Spleen Fetal Period 1. The fetal period extends from the beginning of the third moth of development (week 9) to birth 2. Characterized by maturation of tissues and organs and rapid growth of the body 3. Length of fetus measured in cm as either o Crown-rump length (CRL) o Crown-heel length (CHL) 4. Information about the condition of the fetus (especially in the presence of certain abnormalities) found by means of amniocentesis o Procedure preformed during the fourth month of pregnancy o 5-10ml of amniotic fluid (fluid surrounding the developing fetus) collected within the mothers uterus o Fluid sample contains cells shed by the developing embryo 5. Congenital malformations, congenital anomalies, and birth defects are synonymous terms that describe structural, behavioral, functional and metabolic disorders present at birth o Study of these disorders = teratology 6. Total % of anomalies that occur in live births and are detected by age five 4-6% 7. Birth defects = leading cause of infant morality in the developing world o Accounts for 21% of all infant deaths 8. In 40-60% of birth defects, the cause is unknown o Genetic factors account for 15% o Environmental factors account for 10% 9. Malformation can occur during the formation of structures (the embryonic period - weeks 3-8 of development) o Effects may include complete or partial absence of a structure or alterations in its normal configuration o Causes can be genetic or environmental o Ex. Atrial septal defect - hole in the wall between two chambers of the heart 10.Disruption results in morphological alterations of structures after their formation and is due to destructive processes 11.Deformation due to mechanical forces that mold a part of the fetus over a prolonged period of time o Ex. Clubfeet - caused by compression of the fetus in the uterus o Plagiocephaly - skull is misshapen due to uterine constraint or premature fusion of some of the skull bones o Deformation often involves the muscular or skeletal systems and may be repairable or reversible postnatally 12.S
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