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BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 2

Lecture/ Chapter 2 Study Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Benjamin Wright

Lecture 2 What Darwin Saw: The Evidence for Evolution Key Concepts Terms: Biogeography Homology Adaptive Radiation Convergent Evolution 1) The Fossil Record: a. Provides lots of evidence for evolution through time b. Fossils found in geological strata (layers of rock) are similar to each other, more distant layers show differences, suggesting evolutionary change c. Younger fossils similar to living organisms living in area while older are increasingly different d. Since Darwin more evidence for transitional forms between species have been found: feathered dinosaurs (evolution of birds from dinosaurs), detailed insights into whale evolution Lessons from Geology: 1) The earth is very old, allows immense amount of time for biological evolution 2) Intermediate forms provide evidence for common ancestors linking features of living organisms 3) Fossils in younger strata increasingly resemble modern species in same region, while older strata show increasing differences 4) Earth has to be old in order for these changes to exsist 2) Homology: (vestigial characters) a. Descent with modification implies organisms should show similarities to each other to varying amounts that reflect their common ancestry b. Homology term is used to describe shared characteristics of organism that reflect shared descent c. This contrasts with features that evolved through convergent evolution d. There is abundant evidence for hierarchical patterns of homology at many levels of biological organization including: i. Cellular ii. Developmental iii. Skeletal e. Vestigial traits show evidence of homology but have no evidence for current function in organism, provides good evidence f. DNA evidence provides important means of examining homology g. Homologous features provide basis for reconstructing relationships among organism using phylogenetic methods h. Amphibians and Human digits are similar- evidence i. Approximately 500 genes are shared across all forms of life- evidence www.notesolution.com
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