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Chapter 5

Lecture/ Chapter 5 Study Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Benjamin Wright

Lecture 5 Reproductive Systems Required readings: Origin of sexual reproduction (textbook) Key Concepts Terms: Sexual and asexual reproduction Inbreeding depression Clonal reproduction Genetic load Outbreeding Deleterious alleles Inbreeding Self and cross-fertilization 1) Modes of reproduction: Asexual and sexual, Outbreeding and inbreeding 2) Evolution and adaptive significance of sex: Models, Environment heterogeneity 3) Outbreeding mechanisms: Inbreeding depression, Plant sexual systems Number One: Reproduction serves as a mechanism of regeneration or multiplication. Can provide a means of dispersal to new environments replacement of adult individuals in existing local environments. Genetic viewpoint- reproduction can provide means by which genetic material in population is recombined and shuffled to produce new combinations. Two major modes of reproduction occur in living organism: asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction: (often called cloning) involves replication of identical genetic entities. The results of asexual reproduction is the multiplication of identical genotypes. In asexual reproduction there is no alternation of haploid and diploid cells, no meiosis, no gametes. Instead, differentiated tissue simply undergoes a new cycle of developmental events. Asexual reproduction occurs in many unicellular organisms, eg. bacteria, believed to be primitive mode of reproduction. Many plant species also reproduce by asexual methods in addition to sexual reproduction. Sexual Reproduction: new individuals arise through fusion of male and female gametes. The gametes arise from meiosis and possess half of the genetic material found in the somatic cells of an organism. The reassortment of genetic material that takes place during meiosis is the principle factor that has made possible the evolution of eukaryotic organism over the past 1.5 billion years. Sexual reproduction acts to increase genetic variability in three ways: www.notesolution.com
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