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Biology (600)
BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

BIO Chapter 1: ecology, greek meaning “house, study oh how organism interact in an environment Environmental supports systems: things on which humanity relies for fod, water and protection against natural catastrophes. Some examples of these are: watersheds, agriculture lands, and wetlands. An ecological system may be an organism, a population, or assemblage of populations together, an ecosystem or the biosphere. Each smaller system is a subset (part) of the next larger one. Most fundamental part of ecology: organism Ultimately, all environments are linked together in a single biosphere [known as the ultimate ecological system] Population: many organisms of the same kind living together Populations differ from organism because populations are potentially immortal; births replace deaths They also have roper ties such as geographic ranges, densities, and variations in size or composition(evolutionary responses). Community: populations of different kind make up an ecological community. Communities have no “visible” boundries Organism approach: the way in which an individuals form, physiology, and behaviour help it to survive in its environment. This explains why organisms are limited to certain environments For instance, moist areas are home to trees, where as hot and dry areas are home to shrubs with small leaves. This helps one understand adaptations: modifications of structures or function to better suit an organism increase survival + fitness Population Approach: variations in the number of individuals, sex ratio, age, genetic makeup www.notesolution.com Community Approach: interactions between populations, which both promote and limit the coexistence of species. Eg feeding relationship [movement of energy] Ecosystem Approach: organism and their activities in terms of energy and essential elements such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and so on. Deals with movements of energy, and how this effects climate and other physical factors Biosphere Approach: movements of air and water, and the energy and elements. For instance, ocean currents and wind carry heat and moisture that define climates, which in turn govern the distribution of organisms, composition of communities, and the productivity of ecosystems. Symbiosis- physical relationship between two different types of organisms When one provides another with something they lack, it is called mutualism. The opposite is parasitism,
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