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BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 1

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James Thomson

Lecture 1ish notes Chapter 1 Cells and GenomesUniversal feature of cells on earthmost single celled organism but other like us multicellularAll cells store their hereditary info in the same linear chemical code called DNADNA is long double stranded unbranched polymer chains 4 monomers being Adenine Guanine Cytosine ThymineAll cells replicate their hereditary information by template polymerizationDNA consists of multiple chunks of the followingSugar called deoxyribosethat has phosphate attachedBaseATCGDNA synthesized by the creation of a complementary strand to fit half of the double strand called the template strandBonds betweeb base pairs weaker than the sugar phosphate links which allows for pulling apart of strand without damaging phosphate backboneSUMMARY DNA is information store template polymerization is wayinfo is copiedAll Cells transcribe portions of hereditary info into intermediary form RNADNA is instruction in transcription instruction of DNA guide to the synthesis of RNARNAthen is also a form of instruction for the creation of proteins a process called translationRNA FACTSribose sugar attached to phosphate Adenine with Uracil and CGFormation comes about similarly to DNA creation from template single strand but instead uracil is used with adenine RNA can be made multiple times from the same template strand Imagine it as RNA monomers come to the DNA template strand attach to form a chain then disconnect and leave as a half strand Being single stranded allows for flexibility and makes it able to fold ontop of itself and be kept through week bonds localy complementary Proteins are catalysts in CellsFeatures of Protein long unbranched polymer chains built of monomers called amino acids Form most of mass in cell20 different type of amino acid monomers Protein molecule called polypeptide which fold into 3D shapes3D shapes have sites on them that allow for reactions with other very specific molecules
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