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BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 16

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University of Toronto St. George
James Thomson

Chapter 16 Competition 328335 A 335339 C Connells barnacles and Paines Starfish ATansleys experiment involving two types of plantone flourishing in basic soil the other in acidic soil found that both plants could establish themselves adapt to both soil types except in the presence of competition ie when both were planted in acidic soil the plant more suited for that soil type outcompeted the other plant and vice versa Competition use of defense of a resource by one individual intraspecific or species interspecific which subsequently makes the resource less available to other individuals or species Intraspecific competition in particular regulates populations in a densitydependant manner With interspecific competition species will regulate the size of the other population as well as their own When resource is scarce populations may reach a stable state and stop growing one speices may also outcompete the other resulting in the others extinction Resource is not limited to food things like shelter and space particularly important for immotilesessile animals also function as resources as they can be used or consumed and made unavailable to other individuals Darwin reasoned that competition would be more intense between closely related species as their similar structure creates a need for similar resources While there is generally correct it is also true that distantly related species may utilize many of the same resources and compete strongly Resources may either be unrenewable eg spaceit becomes available only when a consumer moves or dies or renewable in which case they may either be renewed regardless of consumption eg the sun or their rate of consumption may directly or indirectly affect their rate of renewal eg predatorprey relations and nitrogen cycling respectively Liebigs law of minimum offers that a population will increase until a particular resourcethe limiting resourceis reduced to such an extent that it impedes further growth ie terrestrial animals require oxygen as a resource but they wont like deplete its supply food on the other hand can be depleted making it limiting as compared to oxygen Often the interaction of two of more resources serve as limiting synergism Competitive exclusive principle two species cannot coexist indefinitely when the same resource limits both of them As these species do however exist in nature one concludes that there are subtle differences in habitat or d
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