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Text Notes BIO130 Lab 1

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Jane Mitchell

Lab 1 Text Notes pg 195201 211214 636640DNA Structurepackaging of DNAorderly so that chromosomes can replicate and be apportioned correctly between two daughter cells at each cell divisionmust allow access to chromosomal DNAfor enzymes that repair when it is damaged for specialized proteins that direct the expression of its genesDNA deoxyribonucleic acidtoo long polynucleotide chains composed of four types of subunitshydrogen bonds between base portions of nucleotides hold chain together base pairsnucleotidesfivecarbon sugar attached to one or more phosphate group and nitrogencontaining baseDNAsugar deoxyribose attached to single phosphate groupbasesguanine G cytosine C adenine A thymine Tnucleotides linked together in a way that gives DNA chemical polarity5 phosphate and 3 hydroxylformed by interlocking knobs with holesall subunits lined up with same orientationeasily distinguishable5 knob 3 holepolarity described as 35 enddouble helix arises from chemical and structural features of two polynucleotide chainshydrogenbonded bases inside sugarphosphate backbones on outside of double helixbulkier tworing base purine pairs with singlering base pyrimidineAT GCtherefore each base pair has similar widthbackbones at equal distance apart along entire DNA moleculemost energetically favorable arrangement in DNA interiormaximum basepairing efficiencytwo backbones wind around each other form double helixone complete turn every 10 base pairstwo strands are antiparallelpolarities are oppositeeach strand of DNA molecule contains sequence of nucleotides exactly complementary to sequence of partner strandDNA Base Pairs diagramDNA Structure Provides Mechanism for Hereditygenes must be copied accurately for transmission to the next generationcreation of two daughter cells key how is it carried in chemical form how is it accurately transmittedDNA double helixrespective DNA molecules have different nucleotide sequences in structure of DNAgenesproduction of proteins through expressionencode for proteinsproperties of a protein are determined by threedimensional structure in turn determined by linear amino acid sequencegene expressionnucleotide sequence of a gene is converted into nucleotide sequence of RNA molecule and then into amino acid sequence of a protein
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