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BIO230H1 (67)

Lecture 1 and 2 Textbook Notes

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Darrel Desveaux

Lecture 1Pages 18Heredity distinguishes life from other processesAll living cells on Earth without exception store hereditary information in the form of DNA composed of the same 4 nucleotidesNucleotide sugar deoxyribosephosphate and a base All cells replicate their DNA through a DNA template not from a DNA in isolation known as template polymerizationBonds between base pairs is weaker than the sugarphosphate links allowing DNA strands to be easily pulled apartAll cells transcribe portions of their hereditary information into RNARNA is not always single stranded their backbones can fold back on themselves to form weak bonds with itselfAll cells use proteins as catalysts ie enzymes A gene is defined as the segment of DNA sequence corresponding to a single protein Pages 1416Eukaryotes keep their DNA in a membraneenclosed compartment called the nucleusProkaryotes dont have a nuclear compartment Lecture 2 Prokaryotic Transcriptional RegulationPages 411416Cell differentiation depends on changes in gene expression rather than on any changes in the nucleotide sequence of the cells genome The Different Cell Types of a Multicellular Organism Contain the Same DNAThe cell types in an organism become different from one another because they synthesize and accumulate different sets of RNA and protein moleculesoThey do this without altering their sequence of DNA in MOST cases exceptions exist
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