NOTES CLARIFYING TRANSLATION AND TRANSCRIPTION
OCTOBER 6, 2013
domains – a set of nucleotide sequences that the RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase starts at N-domain and ends at C-terminal for
C-terminal at 5' end and N-terminal at 3'end
when RNA polymerase attaches to CTD (c-terminal domain) on DNA,
it initiates transcription
phosphorylation proteins -
ADP --> ATP
uses phosphorylation for transcription and translation
when you add a phosphate group to RNA so it can bind to each
RNA has a phosphate backbone
done by RNA polymerase
on DNA and mRNA
when you've made the RNA sequence and before you send it into
cytoplasm, you add a poly-a tail
poly-a tail is made of 200 adenine nucleotides (mostly but not
poly-a tail tells polymerase to mRNA and that polymerization is
finished and done correctly. Poly-a tail also protects against
degradation in cytoplasm.
poly-a tail template - could be on daughter strand in DNA
replication or on RNA strand.
copy of the poly-a tail on original strand.
RNA polymerase II puts on the poly-a tail.
strong vs. weak splicing
mechanism of alternative splicing
regulation of spliceosomes still unknown. Affect RNA.
weak splicing - don't attach to correct splice site at 3' end of
RNA. spliceosomes don't attach to 3' end because proteins are
blocking spliceosomes from recognizing the splice site.
instead, the spliceosomes attach to another site and remove it
strongly. this creates isomers - could be intentional or could be
unintentional (i.e. cancer)
c-terminus and n-terminus exist on DNA and RNA
body always has DNA and RNA in case we need to produce proteins
so when a protein has a c-terminus, it is dormant
that way, if you need that protein immediately, polymerase will
detach c-terminus and do post-translational modifications to make
the correct protein isomer.
drosophila, you are a default female (in humans)
to become male - you need gene regulatory proteins to remove
introns that make you female. if you don't remove introns, you
splicing regulatory proteins that control for male or female
antibodies are proteins