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BIO230H1 (67)


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University of Toronto St. George
Darrel Desveaux

NOTES CLARIFYING TRANSLATION AND TRANSCRIPTION OCTOBER 6, 2013 domains – a set of nucleotide sequences that the RNA polymerase recognizes RNA polymerase starts at N-domain and ends at C-terminal for transcription process C-terminal at 5' end and N-terminal at 3'end when RNA polymerase attaches to CTD (c-terminal domain) on DNA, it initiates transcription phosphorylation proteins - ADP --> ATP uses phosphorylation for transcription and translation phosphorylation - when you add a phosphate group to RNA so it can bind to each other. RNA has a phosphate backbone polymerization - done by RNA polymerase poly-A tail: on DNA and mRNA when you've made the RNA sequence and before you send it into cytoplasm, you add a poly-a tail poly-a tail is made of 200 adenine nucleotides (mostly but not all adenines) poly-a tail tells polymerase to mRNA and that polymerization is finished and done correctly. Poly-a tail also protects against degradation in cytoplasm. poly-a tail template - could be on daughter strand in DNA replication or on RNA strand. copy of the poly-a tail on original strand. RNA polymerase II puts on the poly-a tail. strong vs. weak splicing mechanism of alternative splicing regulation of spliceosomes still unknown. Affect RNA. weak splicing - don't attach to correct splice site at 3' end of RNA. spliceosomes don't attach to 3' end because proteins are blocking spliceosomes from recognizing the splice site. instead, the spliceosomes attach to another site and remove it strongly. this creates isomers - could be intentional or could be unintentional (i.e. cancer) c-terminus and n-terminus exist on DNA and RNA body always has DNA and RNA in case we need to produce proteins quickly so when a protein has a c-terminus, it is dormant that way, if you need that protein immediately, polymerase will detach c-terminus and do post-translational modifications to make the correct protein isomer. fig-7.98 drosophila, you are a default female (in humans) to become male - you need gene regulatory proteins to remove introns that make you female. if you don't remove introns, you become female. splicing regulatory proteins that control for male or female expression antibodies are proteins membrane-b
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