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Lecture 1- Reading Notes.odt

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO230H1
Professor
Kenneth Yip
Semester
Summer

Description
Lecture 1 - CHAPTER 1: CELLSAND GENOMES pg 1-8, 14-16 *THE UNIVERSAL FEATURES OF CELLS ON EARTH* -heredity: info passed down by rent org'sm detailing characteristics progeny will have -most org'sm single-celled -all org'sm product of cell division from one cell All Cells Store their Hereditary Information in the Same Linear Chemical Code (DNA) -all living cells store hereditary info in x2-stranded DNA -all DNAcomposed of 4 nitrogenous bases ATCG -DNAfrom one org'sm cell can be read, interpreted, & copied by cell of other org'sm (human, bacteria) -pyrimidines: C & T & U; single ringed -purines:A& G; double ringed All Cells Replicate Their Hereditary Information by Templated Polymerization -nucleotide: pentose sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) + P-grp + nitrogenous base -sugar of one linked to sugar of other by P-grp (sugar-phosphate backbone), strong covalent bonds; forms phosphodiester (O-PO-O) bond between 5C of one and 3C ' -subunits of nucleic acids -called ribonucleotide or deoxyribonucleotide -base bonded to sugar by glycosidic linkage; N of base to 1C of sugar -func: carry E in phosphoanhydride bonds (bonds b/w P groups;ATP); form coenzymes (CoA) specific signalling molecules (cAMP) -nucleoside: pentose sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) + base (Adenosine, Guanosine, cytidine, thymidine, uridine) -base pairing between single strand = double strand (H-bonds) -always read strand left to right -DNA Replication: both strands in parent serve as template, new strand formed by complimentary base pairing in process called templated polymerization All Cells Transcribe Portions of their Hereditary Information into the Same Intermediary Form (RNA) -RNAformed by transcription, is single stranded -when transcribed from DNA, U replaces T, ribose sugar instead of deoxyribose -can be mass-produced -RNA transcripts mainly mRNA, translated to create proteins -RNAflexible since x1-strand, can bend back on self, e.g if CCCC at one end and GGGG at other -shape can serve to ID certain molecule and selectively bind -shape can serve as route by which catalysis can occur; not equal info as compared to DNA; there are families of x2 All Cells Use Proteins as Catalysts: -proteins (aside from H 2) most of cell's mass -proteins made up of 20AA -AAall have same core, but each with distinctive R-grp -dep onAAsequence, proteins shape changes -changes form specific shape, which can have active site, i.e enzymes -proteins put cell's genetic info into action -all processes discussed thus far constitute feedback loop—basis of autocatalytic self-reproducing behaviour of living org'sm All Cells Translate RNA into Protein in the Same Way -3 nucleotides = codon: codes for specif
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