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BIO270H1 (4)


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University of Toronto St. George
Chris Garside

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES -animal physiology studies the structure and function of the various parts of an animal and how these parts work together to allow animals to perform their natural behaviours and respond to their environments -much diversity due to the fact that there are more than a million different species of animal on Earth -although there is diversity, there are commonalities too:  all physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws  physiological processes are regulated to maintain internal conditions; homeostasis  homeostasis is maintained through feedback loops,  an animal’s phenotype arises as the product of its genotype  genotype is a product of evolutionary change in a group of organisms A Brief History of Animal Physiology -Galen was the first to use carefully designed experiments to probe the function of the body -Ibn al-Nafis was the first to correctly describe the anatomy of the heart, the coronary circulation, the structure of the lungs, the pulmonary circulation, and the relationship between the lungs and the aeration of the blood -Fernal outlined the current state of knowledge of human health and disease -Vesalius’s was the author of the first modern anatomy textbook and demonstrated that Galen was wrong -Harvey identified the path of blood through the body and showed that contractions of the heart power this movement -two types of physiologists prior to the 18 century:  iatrochemists: believed that body function involved only chemical reactions  iatriophysicists: believed that only physical processes were involved -Boerhaave and Haller proposed that bodily functions were a combination of both chemical and physical processes -milieu interieur: Bernanard postulated that living organisms preserve a distinct internal environment despite changes in the outside environment -central pattern generators: Ladd Prosser; groups of neurons coordinate many rhythmic behaviours, including breathing and walking Subdisciplines in Physiological Research -most animal physiologists specializes in one or two subdisciplines of physiology -three ways to categorize physiological subdisciplines: biological level or organization, nature of the processes that causes physiological variation, and by the ultimate goals of research BIOLOGICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION CELL AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGIST -study phenomena that occurs at the cellular level -might include researchers studying molecular genetics, signal transduction, metabolic biochemistry or membrane biophysics SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGIST -study how cells and tissues interact to carry out specific responsibilities within the whole animal ORGANISMAL PHYSIOLOGIST -study the way an animal undertakes a specific process or behaviour -study things such as metabolic rate in response to a stressor -some specialize in particular groups of animals; marine physiologists, avian physiologists etc ECOLOGICAL PHYSIOLOGIST -study how the physiological properties of an animal influence the distribution and abundance of a species or population -may study how the nutrient distribution in the environment influences the growth rate of an animal -concerned with how an interesting environment affects diverse animals INTEGRATIVE PHSYIOLOGIST -understand physiological processes at a variety of levels of biological organization and across multiple physiological systems -reductionism: we learn about a system by studying the function of its parts -emergence: the whole is often more than the sum of its parts -emergent properties of a system are due to the interactions of the component parts of the system GENERATES VARIATION DEVELOPMENTAL PHYSIOLOGIST -study how structures and functions change as animals grow through the various life stages ENVIRONMENTAL PHSYIOLOGIST -assess how animals mount physiological responses to environmental challenges -interested in the way an individual animal changes its physiology in survive an environmental challenge EVOLUTIONARY PHYSIOLOGIST -explain how specific physiological traits arise within lineages over multiple generations -applied physiology: intended to achieve a specific, practical goal -
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