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CHM135H1 (52)
Chapter 1

Chemistry Review Chapter 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
James Thomson

Chemistry Review CHAPTER 1 Chemistry: the study of matter + its properties, changes the matter undergo, + energy assc w/ those changes Matter? Anything w/ MASS + VOLUME Chemists look for composition of matter Composition: types + amount of simpler subs that make it up Subs: Types of matter with defined + fixed composition Learned by the observed properties (char. that give each sub its unique ID) To identify a sub, look @ 2 props: 1) PHYSICAL – shows by its self, without changing/interacting into another sub - P-CHANGE = same substance before+after - Ex) MP, density 2) CHEMICAL – show as it changes/interacts with another sub - C-CHANGE= diff sub before+after - Ex) Flamibility, corrosiveness States (solid, liquid, gas) 1) SOLID – fixed shaped, doesn’t conform *not defined by rigidness/hardness 2) LIQUID – varying shaped that conform *only to extent of its volume - Has upper surface 3) GAS – “ “ *fills entire container - Doesn’t have surface - Add/removal changes V of container - Depending on temp + pr of surroundings, subs can exist in all states and undergo changes in state too * P-CHANGE caused by heating can generally be revered by cooling, NOT generally true for C-CHANRGE* MACROSCOPIC SCALE: props + behavior we can see ATOMIC SCALE: Can’t see, composition ultimately depend on make up of subs @ this scale Importance of Energyyyyyy!!!!! - P + C-CHANGE accompanied by energy: the ability to do work - Obj doing work transfers some energy to object work is done on - TTL EN AN OBJECT HAS = SUM OF POTENTIAL + KINETIC EN - Potential- energy due to POSITION of obj relative to others - Increase in potential energy if nothing has been released yet - Kinetic- energy due to MOTION of obj IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1) When energy is converted from one form to another, it is CONSERVED, not destroyed 2) Situations of lower energy = more stable = more favored than higher energy – Weight raised above ground 4 CASES - 2 balls attached by a string - 2 electrically charged particles - A fuel + its waste products  Alchemical Trad – study of nature: 1 C st Prechem Traditions  Influenced by GR idea that matter strives for perffffff  Names for subs + belief matter can change magically  Tech. methods! (distillation, extraction) obv, experiments Medical Traditions  Medicine practices in medieval EURO  Extract roots, herbs used as medicine  PARACULUS = “body = chem system that can be restored by drugs”  Alliance between MED + CHEM Tech. Tradition  Middle
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